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Hong Kong Honours System
The existing Hong Kong
Hong Kong
honours system was created after transfer of government of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
as a special administrative region in 1997. Before that, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was a British dependent territory and followed the British honours system
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Transfer Of The Sovereignty Of Hong Kong
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong
Hong Kong
from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in China, took place on 1 July 1997
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Military Cross
The Military Cross
Military Cross
(MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and used to be awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The MC is granted in recognition of "an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land to all members, of any rank in Our Armed Forces".[5] In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, could be awarded posthumously.[6]Contents1 History1.1 Description2 Notable awards 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Bibliograp
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Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
(VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces. It may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1857, two thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War
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John Robert Osborn
World War I World War IIBattle of Hong KongAwards Victoria CrossJohn Robert Osborn, VC (2 January 1899 – 19 December 1941) was a Canadian soldier. Osborn is a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was born in Norfolk, England, and served in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during World War I.Contents1 Details 2 Legacy 3 References 4 External linksDetails[edit] Osborn was born in England
England
and came to Canada
Canada
in 1920, after serving World War I
World War I
with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. Osborn first lived in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and then settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba
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George Cross
The George Cross
George Cross
(GC) is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded "for acts of the greatest heroism or for most conspicuous courage in circumstance of extreme danger",[3] not in the presence of the enemy, to members of the British armed forces and to British civilians.[4] Posthumous awards have been allowed since it was instituted. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians including police, emergency services and merchant seamen. Many of the awards have been personally presented by the British monarch to both recipients and in the case of posthumous awards to next of kin
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Mateen Ahmed Ansari
Captain Mateen Ahmed Ansari GC (15 December 1916[1] – 29 October 1943) of the 5th Battalion, 7th Rajput Regiment, in the Indian Army during World War II, and member of the British Army Aid Group. [2] was awarded the George Cross
George Cross
posthumously. The decoration, the highest British (and Commonwealth) award for bravery out of combat, was announced in a supplement to the London Gazette
London Gazette
of 16 April 1946[3] as being awarded for the 'most conspicuous gallantry.' He was taken prisoner when Japan occupied Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in December 1941 after the Battle of Hong Kong
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John Alexander Fraser
Major John Alexander Fraser GC MC and Bar (12 February 1896[2][3] – 29 October 1943) was a British colonial officer who was posthumously awarded the George Cross, the highest British (and Commonwealth) award for bravery out of combat, for his "magnificent conduct" and "outstanding courage" in resisting Japanese torture during the Second World War. First World War[edit] Born in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
in 1896, and educated at Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University,[4] he was commissioned into the Royal Scots Fusiliers
Royal Scots Fusiliers
during the First World War. He served as a machine gun officer and won the Military Cross (MC) in 1916. The MC was announced in the London Gazette on 20 October 1916, and the citation read:[5]Temp. 2nd Lt. John Alexander Fraser, R. Sc. Fus. For conspicuous gallantry during operations
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Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Service Order
(DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Contents1 Creation 2 Modern era 3 Nomenclature 4 Description 5 Notable recipients 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCreation[edit
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Order Of The British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
British Empire
is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.[2] It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female.[3] There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions
Dominions
of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India
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Indian Order Of Merit
The Indian Order of Merit
Order of Merit
(IOM) was a military and civilian decoration of British India. It was established in 1837, (General Order of the Governor-General of India, No. 94 of 1 May 1837)[1] although following the Partition of India
Partition of India
in 1947 it was decided to discontinue the award and in 1954 a separate Indian honours system was developed, to act retrospectively to 1947. For a long period of time the IOM was the highest decoration that a native member of the British Indian Army could receive and initially it had three divisions
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Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is a third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Armed Forces, Royal Fleet Auxiliary
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
and British Merchant Navy, and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The DSC, which may be granted posthumously, is "...awarded in recognition of an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy at sea."[1]Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Four-time recipient 4 List of three time recipients 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] The award was originally created in 1901 as the Conspicuous Service Cross, for award to warrant and junior officers ineligible for the DSO. It was renamed the Distinguished Service Cross in October 1914, eligibility being extended to all naval officers (commissioned and warrant) below the rank of lieutenant commander
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Royal Red Cross
The Royal Red Cross
Royal Red Cross
is a military decoration awarded in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for exceptional services in military nursing.Contents1 Foundation 2 Description 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksFoundation[edit] The award was established on 27 April 1883 by Queen Victoria, with a single class of Member and first awarded to the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale. A second and lower class, Associate, was added during World War I
World War I
in 1917. The award is made to a fully trained nurse of an officially recognised nursing service, military or civilian, who has shown exceptional devotion and competence in the performance of actual nursing duties, over a continuous and long period, or who has performed some very exceptional act of bravery and devotion at his or her post of duty. This decoration had the distinction of being conferred exclusively to females until 1976
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Air Force Cross (United Kingdom)
The Air Force Cross (AFC) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Armed Forces, and formerly also to officers of the other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy". A bar is added to the ribbon for holders who are awarded a second AFC.[4]Contents1 History 2 Post-nominal letters 3 Description 4 Notable awards 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The award was established on 3 June 1918. It was originally awarded to Air Force commissioned officers and Warrant Officers, but this was expanded after the Second World War
Second World War
to include Army and Navy aviation officers, and again in 1993 to other ranks, after the discontinuation of the Air Force Medal.[4] During the First World War, approximately 680 were awarded
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Public Holidays In Hong Kong
Public holidays and statutory holidays in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
are holidays designated by the Government of Hong Kong
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Anna May Waters
Anna May Waters
Anna May Waters
(21 January 1903-8 December 1987) was a Canadian nurse who served in World War II. Taken as a prisoner of war during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, she remained in captivity for fourteen months. Upon her release, Waters returned to Canada and was honored with the Royal Red Cross. After her service in Canada, Waters moved to Hawaii, spending over a decade nursing lepers at Molokai.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Death and legacy 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 BibliographyEarly life[edit] Anna May Waters, known as May, was born on 21 January 1903, in Strathroy, Ontario, Canada
Ontario, Canada
to Mary (née McDonald) and David Waters.[1][2][3][4] When she was eight years old, she moved with her parents and three brothers to Winnipeg, Manitoba. She was educated at Lord Roberts School and Kelvin High School, before entering nursing training
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