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Homyel
GOMEL (also HOMIEL, HOMEL or HOMYEL’; Belarusian : Го́мель, Łacinka : Homiel, pronounced , Russian : Го́мель, pronounced ) is the administrative centre of Homiel Voblast and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus
Belarus

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Mozhaysk
MOZHAYSK (Russian : Можайск; IPA: ) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast
Moscow Oblast
, Russia , located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow
Moscow
, on the historic road leading to Smolensk
Smolensk
and then to Poland
Poland
. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census ); 31,459 (2002 Census ); 30,735 (1989 Census ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative and municipal status * 3 Architecture * 4 Trivia * 5 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Sources * 7 External links HISTORYIt was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov ; it was named after the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small')
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Svitrigaila
ŠVITRIGAILA (before 1370 – 10 February 1452) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432. He spent most of his life in largely unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas and Sigismund Kęstutaitis . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
rebellion * 2 Struggle against Vytautas (1392–1430) * 2.1 Defection to Hungary * 2.2 Defection to Prussia * 2.3 Defection to Moscow and imprisonment * 2.4 Escape to Hungary and reconciliation * 3 Struggle against Sigismund * 3.1 Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
* 3.2 Coup and civil war * 4 Later years * 5 Notes * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND VITEBSK REBELLION Švitrigaila was born to Algirdas , Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
, and his second wife Uliana of Tver
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Grand Duchy Of Moscow
The GRAND DUCHY OF MOSCOW (Russian : Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), or GRAND PRINCIPALITY OF MOSCOW (also known in English simply as MUSCOVY), was a late medieval Rus\' principality centered on Moscow
Moscow
and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia . The state originated with Daniel I , who inherited Moscow
Moscow
in 1283, eclipsing and eventually absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s. It later annexed the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver
Grand Duchy of Tver
in 1485
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Muscovite-Lithuanian War
The MUSCOVITE–LITHUANIAN WARS (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars) were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , allied with the Kingdom of Poland , and the Grand Duchy of Moscow . After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III and Vasily III , the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . Before the first series of wars in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had already gained control of a lot of Rus\' territories, from Kiev to Mozhaisk , following the collapse of Kievan Rus\' after the Mongol invasions. Over the course of the series of wars, particularly in the 16th century, the Muscovites were able to expand their domain westwards, taking control of many Rus' lands
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Jerzy Radziwiłł
JERZY RADZIWIłł (Lithuanian : Jurgis Radvila) (1480 – April 1541) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble . He was Deputy Cup-Bearer of Lithuania from 1510, voivode of Kiev Voivodeship from 1510, Field Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania in 1521, castellan of Trakai
Trakai
from 1522, castellan of Vilnius
Vilnius
from 1527, Marshal of the Court from 1528, Grand Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania from 1531, Starost of Hrodna , Namiestnik of Vilnius
Vilnius
, Maišiagala , Mereck , Utena , Mozyrsk , Lida , Skidal , Bielica , Kryńsk and Oziersk . He was a progenitor of the Biržai Dubingiai (also known as Protestant ) Radziwiłł family line. He was renowned for his military achievements and as a talented politician
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Algirdas
ALGIRDAS (Belarusian : Альгерд, Russian : Ольгерд, Polish : Olgierd ; c. 1296 – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania . He ruled the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians
Ruthenians
from 1345 to 1377. With the help of his brother Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(who defended the western border of the Duchy) he created an empire stretching from the present Baltic states
Baltic states
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and to within fifty miles of Moscow. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Expansion of Lithuania * 3 Religion and death * 4 Assessment * 5 See also * 6 References BACKGROUND Algirdas
Algirdas
was one of the seven sons of Grand Prince Gediminas
Gediminas

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Great Duchy Of Lithuania
2. Internationally recognized as part of Moldova . The GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians , one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija . The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus\' and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus , parts of Ukraine , Poland and Russia . At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. Mindaugas , the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253
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Novhorod-Siverskyi
NOVHOROD-SIVERSKYI (Ukrainian : Новгород-Сіверський, Novhorod Siverskyi, Ukrainian pronunciation: ; Russian : Но́вгород-Се́верский, Novgorod-Seversky; Polish : Nowogród Siewierski) is a historic city in Chernihiv Oblast
Chernihiv Oblast
(province ) of Ukraine
Ukraine
. It is the administrative center of Novhorod-Siverskyi Raion , though it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
is situated on the bank of the Desna River , 330 km from the capital, Kiev
Kiev
, and 45 km south of the Russian border. Population: 13,762 (2015 est.) CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Architecture * 3 Gallery * 4 External links HISTORYThe town was first chronicled in 1044
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Igor Svyatoslavich
PRINCE IGOR SVYATOSLAVICH THE BRAVE (Old East Slavic : Игорь Святъславичь, Igorĭ Svjatŭslavičĭ; Russian : Игорь Святославич, Igor Svyatoslavich; Ukrainian : Ігор Святославич, Ihor Svyatoslavych; Old Norse : Ingvar Sveinaldsson) (Novhorod-Siverskyi, April 3 / 10, 1151 – the spring of 1201 / December 29, 1202 ) was a Rus’ prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty ). His baptismal name was YURY. Igor was prince of Putivl (1164–1180), of Novgorod-Seversk (1180–1198), and of Chernigov (1198–1201/1202 ). Chronicle evidence reveals that he had an enviably successful military career; he led many campaigns against the Cumans from among which the chronicles report only one defeat. But it was his defeat at the river Kayala (the exact location of which has never been definitively established) that has become immortalized through its literary rendering in “The Lay of Igor’s Campaign ”, the most celebrated epic of Rus’
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The Tale Of Igor's Campaign
THE TALE OF IGOR\'S CAMPAIGN (Old East Slavic : Слово о плъкоу Игоревѣ, Slovo o plŭku Igorevě) is an anonymous epic poem written in the Old East Slavic language
Old East Slavic language
. The title is occasionally translated as The Tale of the Campaign of Igor, The Song of Igor's Campaign, The Lay of Igor's Campaign, The Lay of the Host of Igor, and The Lay of the Warfare Waged by Igor. The poem gives an account of a failed raid of Igor Svyatoslavich (d. 1202) against the Polovtsians of the Don River region. While some have disputed the authenticity of the poem, the current scholarly consensus is that the poem is authentic and dates to the medieval period (late 12th century)
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Volost
VOLOST (Russian : во́лость; IPA: ) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz , a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
(Grand Prince ). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, Poland
Poland
, Muscovy , lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts , that were called "uyezd " in Muscovy
Muscovy
and later Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city
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Jan Tarnowski
JAN AMOR TARNOWSKI (Latin: Joannes Tarnovius; 1488 – 16 May 1561 ) was a Polish nobleman , knight , military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland . He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol , where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Family * 3 Important Works * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORYTarnowski was born in 1488, the son of Jan Amor Junior Tarnowski, castellan of Kraków , and his second wife Barbara of Rożnów , granddaughter of the knight Zawisza the Black . He was a scion of an important family clan started in the mid-14th century by Spycimir Leliwita , castellan of Kraków. Tarnowski had five half-siblings from his father's first marriage: Jan Amor the Elder, Jan Aleksander (d. 1497), Katarzyna, Zofia and Elżbieta. He had also five half-sisters from his mother's first marriage
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Sigismund Kęstutaitis
SIGISMUND KęSTUTAITIS (Lithuanian : Žygimantas I Kęstutaitis; Polish : Zygmunt Kiejstutowicz; c. 1365 – 20 March 1440) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440. Sigismund was his baptismal name ; Sigismund's pagan Lithuanian birth name is unknown. He was the son of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Kęstutis and his wife Birutė . After the death of Kęstutis , he was a prisoner of Jogaila from 1382–1384. Sigismund was baptized in Catholic rite in 1383. In 1384, he escaped captivity and joined his brother Vytautas the Great , who allied himself with the Teutonic Knights . When Vytautas allied with the Teutonic Knights for the second time to fight Skirgaila , Sigismund was a hostage of the Teutonic Knights, together with his family, from 1389–1398. He became Duke of Navahradak (1390–1440), and Starodub from 1406. He participated in the Battles of Vorskla and the Grunwald
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Ivan The Terrible
IVAN IV VASILYEVICH (Russian : Ива́н Васи́льевич, tr. Ivan Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 - 28 March 1584), commonly known as IVAN THE TERRIBLE or IVAN THE FEARSOME (Russian : Ива́н Гро́зный​ (help ·info ), Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow
Moscow
from 1533 to 1547, then " Tsar
Tsar
of All the Russias" until his death in 1584. The last title was used by all his successors. During his reign, Russia conquered the Khanates of Kazan
Kazan
, Astrakhan and Sibir , becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning approximately 4,050,000 km2 (1,560,000 sq mi). Ivan exercised autocratic control over Russia\'s hereditary nobility and developed a bureaucracy to administer his new territories
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Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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