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Hne
The hne (Burmese: နှဲ; also spelled hnè) is a conical shawm of double reed used in the music of Myanmar.Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 References 4 External links 5 See alsoEtymology[edit] The earliest extant written occurrence of the word hne dates to 1491 AD and is likely a Middle Mon loan word, derived from sanoy.[1] Description[edit] The hne has a sextuple reed (called hnegan), made from the young leaf of the toddy palm, which is soaked for six months.[1] The body of the hne is made of wood, with a conical bore and seven finger holes at the front, set in a straight line, with a bell (ချူ, chu) hung at the top.[1] It has a flaring metal bell and has a loud tone, and is used in an ensemble together with xylophone, tuned gongs, and tuned drums. There are two distinct forms: the smaller form is called the hne galay (နှဲကလေး) whilst the larger is called the hne gyi (နှဲကြီး)
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Xylophone
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood"[1] + φωνή—phōnē, "sound, voice",[2] meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use. The term xylophone may be used generally, to include all such instruments such as the marimba, balafon and even the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers specifically to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, and these two instruments should not be confused. The term is also popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types
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Loan Word
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Bagpipes
Bagpipes
Bagpipes
are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland bagpipes
Highland bagpipes
are the best known in the Anglophone world, bagpipes have been played for a millennium or more throughout large parts of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, including Turkey, the Caucasus, and around the Persian Gulf
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Zukra
The zukra (zokra, zoughara, Arabic: زكرة‎) is a Libyan bagpipe[1] with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns; it is similar in construction to the Tunisian mizwad. The instrument is played as a bagpipe in the south and west of Libya, but played by mouth without a bag in the east.[2] The instrument is played at feasts, weddings, and funerals.[3] See also[edit]Mizwad Gaida Rhaita Mizmar (instrument)References[edit]^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Jon Lusk (5 December 2006). The Rough Guide to World Music: Africa & Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84353-551-5. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ Anthony Ham (15 August 2007). Libya. Lonely Planet. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-1-74059-493-6. Retrieved 23 April 2011.  ^ Nina Epton (1952). Oasis Kingdom: the Libyan story. Jarrolds. p. 18. Retrieved 23 April 2011. External links[edit]Image of a zukra player in a band, in Paul A. Rozario (January 2004). Libya
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Lupophon
The Lupophon[1][2] is a woodwind instrument developed by Guntram Wolf of Kronach
Kronach
and Benedikt Eppelsheim of Munich, Germany, manufactured by Guntram Wolf. The instrument takes name after the Italian translation of the inventor's surname (lupo standing for wolf), as the sarrusophone, the saxhorn, the saxophone, the heckelphone, the rothphone had been called after their inventors. It is in effect a modified heckelphone, with a slightly smaller bore and range down to low F. The lower portion of the instrument is folded back on itself in order to manage the considerable length of the tube, somewhat in the manner of a saxophone
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Borassus
See text.Synonyms[2]Lontarus Adans. Borassus
Borassus
(Palmyra palm) is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia
Asia
and New Guinea. These massive palms can grow up to 30 m (98 ft) high and have robust trunks with distinct leaf scars; in some species the trunk develops a distinct swelling just below the crown, though for unknown reasons. The leaves are fan-shaped, 2–3 m long and with spines along the petiole margins (no spines in B. heineanus)
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Mon Language
The Mon language (Mon: ဘာသာ မန်; Burmese: မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand. Mon, like the related Khmer language, but unlike most languages in mainland Southeast Asia, is not tonal. In recent years, usage of Mon has declined rapidly, especially among the younger generation.[4] Many ethnic Mon are monolingual in Burmese, and the language is classified as "vulnerable" by UNESCO. The current number of speakers is approximately 800,000 in 2007
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Burmese Language
The Burmese language
Burmese language
(Burmese: မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA: [mjəmà bàðà]) is the official language of Myanmar. Although the Constitution of Myanmar
Myanmar
officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar
Myanmar
language,[4] most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 34 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar
Myanmar
and neighboring countries. Burmese is a tonal, pitch-register, and syllable-timed language,[5] largely monosyllabic and analytic, with a subject–object–verb word order. It is a member of the Lolo-Burmese grouping of the Sino-Tibetan language family
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Burmese Alphabet
The Burmese alphabet
Burmese alphabet
(Burmese: မြန်မာအက္ခရာ; pronounced [mjəmà ʔɛʔkʰəjà]) is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet
Pallava alphabet
of South India, and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script. The Burmese alphabet
Burmese alphabet
is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit. In recent decades, other, related alphabets, such as Shan and modern Mon, have been restructured according to the standard of the now-dominant Burmese alphabet
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Musical Instrument Classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most commonly used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; however, other schemes have been devised.Contents1 Chinese classification 2 Western classification 3 Mahillon and Hornbostel-Sachs systems 4 André Schaeffner4.1 Elementary organology5 Range 6 Other classifications6.1 Indonesian instruments 6.2 West African instruments 6.3 Kurt Reinhard 6.4 Persia7 See also 8 ReferencesChinese classification[edit] The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC.[citation needed] It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of
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Musical Instrument
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years
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Wind Instrument
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air
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Music Of Myanmar
The music of Burma (or Myanmar) has similarities with and is related to many other musical traditions in the region.Contents1 Traditional music1.1 Classical traditions 1.2 Mahagita 1.3 Folk traditions2 Popular music2.1 Early beginnings 2.2 1980s-1990s 2.3 2000s-present3 Musical instruments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTraditional music[edit]Burmese musicians performing at the Shwedagon Pagoda in 1895.Traditional music from Burma is melodious, generally without harmony, and usually in 4/4 time (na-yi-se) or 2/4 (wa-let-se) or 8/16 (wa-let-a-myan)
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