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History Of Pharmacy
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century. Before then, pharmacy evolved from antiquity as part of medicine.Contents1 Prehistoric pharmacy 2 Antiquity 3 Middle Ages 4 See also 5 ReferencesPrehistoric pharmacy[edit] Paleopharmacological studies attest to the use of medicinal plants in pre-history.[1] Antiquity[edit] Further information: De Materia Medica Sumerian cuneiform tablets record prescriptions for medicine.[2] Ancient Egyptian pharmacological knowledge was recorded in various papyri such as the Ebers Papyrus
Ebers Papyrus
of 1550 BC, and the Edwin Smith Papyrus of the 16th century BC. In Ancient Greece, according to Edward Kremers and Glenn Sonnedecker, "before, during and after the time of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
there was a group of experts in medicinal plants
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Hieronymus Brunschwig
Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (c. 1450 – c. 1512), was a German surgeon („wund artzot“), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds and for his early work on distillation techniques. His most influential book was the Liber de arte distillandi de simplicibus (also called Kleines Destillierbuch).Contents1 Life 2 Publications 3 Liber de arte distillandi de simplicibus 4 References 5 Notes 6 External linksLife[edit] Brunschwig was born c. 1450 in the free imperial city of Strasbourg, which in his time was part of the Holy Roman Empire. Some notes in his Buch der cirurgia may suggest, that he studied in Bologna, Padua and Paris and that he participated in the Burgundian Wars, but all this is utterly unfounded.[1][2] He settled at Strasbourg at the end of the fifteenth century. He died in Strasbourg, c
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Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī (Arabic: أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي‎;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
(الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim
Muslim
physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in
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Heian Period
The Heian period
Heian period
(平安時代, Heian jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.[1] The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism
Taoism
and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period
Heian period
is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family
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Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
(明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.[2] The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath
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Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad
(/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بغداد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] ( listen)) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016[update], is approximately 8,765,000,[citation needed][note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world
Arab world
(after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia
Western Asia
(after Tehran, Iran). Located along the Tigris
Tigris
River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
(Ancient Greek: Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; c. 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Ancient Greek: Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years
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Botany
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Medicine In Medieval Islam
Medicine
Medicine
is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Muhammad Ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
Abū Bakr Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى‬ Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian[3][4][5] polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine
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Sublimation (chemistry)
Sublimation is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.[1] Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram, which corresponds to the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition or desublimation, in which a substance passes directly from a gas to a solid phase.[2] Sublimation has also been used as a generic term to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a gas-to-solid transition (deposition).[3] At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. The pressure referred to is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g
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Taihō Code
The Taihō Code
Taihō Code
or Code of Taihō (大宝律令, Taihō-ritsuryō) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 703 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period.[1] It was historically one of the Ritsuryō-sei (律令制, ritsuryō-sei). It was compiled at the direction of Prince Osakabe, Fujiwara no Fuhito and Awata no Mahito.[2] The work was begun at the request of Emperor Monmu
Emperor Monmu
and, like many other developments in the country at the time, it was largely an adaptation of the governmental system of China's Tang dynasty.[2] The establishment of the Taihō Code
Taihō Code
was one of the first events to include Confucianism
Confucianism
as a significant element in the Japanese code of ethics and government
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Al-Biruni
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī;[4][5] New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī[6]) (4 September 973[7][8] – 9 December 1048[7]), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎) in English,[9] was an Iranian[10][11][12][13] scholar and polymath from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
— a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.[12] He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings
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