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History Of Pharmacy
The HISTORY OF PHARMACY as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century. Before then, pharmacy evolved from antiquity as part of medicine . CONTENTS * 1 Prehistoric pharmacy * 2 Antiquity * 3 Middle Ages * 4 See also * 5 References PREHISTORIC PHARMACYPaleopharmacological studies attest to the use of medicinal plants in pre-history. ANTIQUITYSumerian cuneiform tablets record prescriptions for medicine. Ancient Egyptian pharmacological knowledge was recorded in various papyri such as the Ebers Papyrus of 1550 BC, and the Edwin Smith Papyrus of the 16th century BC. In Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
, according to Edward Kremers and Glenn Sonnedecker, "before, during and after the time of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
there was a group of experts in medicinal plants. Probably the most important representative of these rhizotomoi was Diocles of Carystus (4th century BC)
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Dioscorides
PEDANIUS DIOSCORIDES ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; c. 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia ), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years. He was employed as a medic in the Roman army
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Abbasid Caliphate
The ABBASID CALIPHATE (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs , for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq
Iraq
, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa
Kufa
, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon

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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms , i.e. elements , and molecules , i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds . There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds , in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions : cations and anions ; hydrogen bonds ; and Van der Waals force bonds. See glossary of chemistry . In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology
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Medicine In Medieval Islam
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline
Population decline
, counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
, continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Baghdad
BAGHDAD ( Arabic
Arabic
: بغداد‎, ( listen )) is the capital of Iraq . The population of Baghdad, as of 2016 , is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
). Located along the Tigris River , the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Meiji Restoration
The MEIJI RESTORATION (明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji . Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath . The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period
Edo period
(often called the Late Tokugawa shogun ) and the beginning of the Meiji period
Meiji period

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Hieronymus Brunschwig
HIERONYMUS BRUNSCHWIG or HIERONYMUS BRUNSCHWYGK (c. 1450 – c. 1512), was a German surgeon („wund artzot“), alchemist and botanist . He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds and for his early work on distillation techniques . His most influential book was the Liber de arte distillandi de simplicibus (also called Kleines Destillierbuch). CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Publications * 3 Liber de arte distillandi de simplicibus * 4 References * 5 Notes * 6 External links LIFEBrunschwig was born c. 1450 in the free imperial city of Strasbourg , which in his time was part of the Holy Roman Empire . Some notes in his Buch der cirurgia may suggest, that he studied in Bologna , Padua and Paris and that he participated in the Burgundian Wars , but all this is utterly unfounded. He settled at Strasbourg at the end of the fifteenth century. He died in Strasbourg, c. 1512
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Taihō Code
The TAIHO CODE or CODE OF TAIHO (大宝律令, Taihō-ritsuryō) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 703 in Japan
Japan
, at the end of the Asuka period
Asuka period
. It was historically one of the Ritsuryō
Ritsuryō
-sei (律令制, ritsuryō-sei). It was compiled at the direction of Prince Osakabe , Fujiwara no Fuhito
Fujiwara no Fuhito
and Awata no Mahito . The work was begun at the request of Emperor Monmu
Emperor Monmu
and, like many other developments in the country at the time, it was largely an adaptation of the governmental system of China
China
's Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty

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Yōrō Code
The YōRō CODE (養老律令, Yōrō-ritsuryō) was one iteration of several codes or governing rules compiled in early Nara period
Nara period
in Classical Japan
Classical Japan
. It was compiled in 718, the second year of the Yōrō regnal era by Fujiwara no Fuhito
Fujiwara no Fuhito
et al., but not promulgated until 757 under the regime of Fujiwara no Nakamaro under Empress Kōken . The penal code portions (ritsu) were largely lost, although they have been reconstructed. The content of the civil code portions (ryō) are preserved nearly fully, copied out in later texts
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Heian Period
The HEIAN PERIOD (平安時代, Heian jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history , running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō , or modern Kyōto . It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism
Buddhism
, Taoism
Taoism
and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period
Heian period
is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art , especially poetry and literature . Although the Imperial House of Japan
Japan
had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan
Fujiwara clan
, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family . Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian (平安) means "peace" in Japanese
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Muhammad Ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
ABū BAKR MUHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYYā AL-RāZī (ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name RHAZES or RASIS) (854 CE – 925 CE), was a Persian polymath , physician , alchemist , philosopher , and important figure in the history of medicine. A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine , he became a successful doctor, and served as chief physician of Baghdad
Baghdad
and Ray hospitals. As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor
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Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi
ABU or ABU may refer to: PLACES * Abu (volcano) , a volcano on the island of Honshū in Japan * Mount Abu
Mount Abu
, the highest mountain in the Indian state of Rajasthan * Abu, Yamaguchi
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Masawaih Al-Mardini
MASAWAIH AL-MARDINI (YAHYā IBN MASAWAIH AL-MARDINI; known as MESUE THE YOUNGER) was a Syrian physician. He was born in Mardin , Upper Mesopotamia . After working in Baghdad , he entered to the service of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah . He died in 1015 in Cairo at the age of ninety. Masawaih al-Mardini was a Nestorian Christian . He is known due to his books on purgatives and emetics (De medicins laxativis) and on the complete pharmacopoeia in 12 parts called the Antidotarium sive Grabadin medicamentorum, which remained for centuries the standard textbook of pharmacy in the West. He also described methods of distillation of empyreumatic oils. A method of extracting oil from "some kind of bituminous shale", one of the first descriptions of extraction of shale oil was described by him in the 10th century. REFERENCES * ^ A B Sarton, George (1975). Introduction to the History of Science: From Homer to Omar Khayyam. 1. R. E. Krieger Pub. Co. p
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Cairo
CAIRO (/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh ; Arabic : القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah, pronunciation (help ·info ), Coptic : ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ Kahire) is the capital and largest city of Egypt
Egypt
. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world , and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt
Egypt
, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta , modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty , but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo
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