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History Of Medicine
The history of medicine, as practiced by trained professionals, shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath
Hippocratic Oath
was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, and is a direct inspiration for oaths of office that physicians swear upon entry into the profession today. In the medieval age, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and then systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around the years 1220 in Italy. During the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, and the microscope was invented. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases
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History Of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary medicine
Veterinary medicine
is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild, with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. Veterinary medicine
Veterinary medicine
is widely practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most often led by a veterinary physician (also known as a vet, veterinary surgeon or veterinarian), but also by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians
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Peseshet
Peseshet, who lived under the Fourth Dynasty (albeit a date to the Fifth Dynasty is also possible), is often credited with being the earliest known female physician in ancient Egypt, though another, Merit-Ptah
Merit-Ptah
lived earlier. Her relevant title was "lady overseer of the female physicians,"[2][3] but whether she was a physician herself is uncertain.[4] She also had the titles king's acquaintance, and overseer of funerary-priests of the king's mother.[5] She had a son Akhethetep, in whose mastaba at Giza
Giza
her personal false door was found.[6][7][8] However, the mother-son relation of Akhethetep and Peseshet is not confirmed by any inscription. On the false door is also depicted a man called Kanefer. He might be her husband. She may have graduated midwives[9] at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais; midwifery must have existed, even though no ancient Egyptian term for it is known
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Public Health System
Public health
Public health
is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."[1] Analyzing the health of a population and the threats is the basis for public health.[2] The "public" in question can be as small as a handful of people, an entire village or it can be as large as several continents, in the case of a pandemic. "Health" takes into account physical, mental and social well-being. It is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, according to the World Health
Health
Organization.[3] Public health
Public health
is interdisciplinary. For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and health services are all relevant
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Edwin Smith Papyrus
Papyrus
Papyrus
/pəˈpaɪrəs/ is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge.[1] Papyrus (plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.An official letter on a papyrus of the 3rd century BCE Papyrus
Papyrus
is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), as the papyrus plant was once abundant across the Nile Delta. It was also used throughout the Mediterranean region and in the Kingdom of Kush
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Imhotep
Imhotep
Imhotep
(/ɪmˈhoʊtɛp/;[1] Egyptian: ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap, in Unicode hieroglyphs: 𓇍𓅓𓊵:𓏏*𓊪, "the one who comes in peace"; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis. Very little is known of Imhotep
Imhotep
as a historical figure, but in the 3000 years following his death, he was gradually glorified and deified. Today, outside the Egyptological community, he is referred to as a polymath,[2] poet,[3] judge,[3] engineer,[4] magician, scribe,[4] astronomer,[5] astrologer,[5] and especially a physician.[6][3][7][8][9] These claims are founded on the legends that flourished in the millennia after his death, not on historical records
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Third Dynasty Of Egypt
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth
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Anatomical
Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy
Anatomy
is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
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Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus
Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus
(also Petrie Medical Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, Lahun Medical Papyrus, or UC32057) is the oldest known medical text in Egypt,[citation needed] although not the oldest in the world as in Philadelphia museum a Sumerian medical clay tablet from 3rd millennium is preserved [1]. Dated to c. 1800 BCE, it deals with women's health—gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. It was found at El-Lahun
El-Lahun
(Faiyum, Egypt) by Flinders Petrie in 1889[2] and first translated by F. Ll. Griffith in 1893 and published in The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob.[3] It is kept in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology
Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology
of the University College London
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History Of Ancient Egypt
The history of ancient Egypt
Egypt
spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile
Nile
valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC
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Hesy-Ra
Hesy-Ra
Hesy-Ra
(also read Hesy-Re and Hesire) was an Ancient Egyptian high official during the early 3rd dynasty. He is famous for his tomb paintings and his cedar wood panels.Contents1 Identity1.1 Titles 1.2 Career2 Tomb 3 ReferencesIdentity[edit] Thanks to several clay seal impressions found in Hesy-Ra's tomb, it is today known that this high official lived and worked during the reign of king (pharaoh) Djoser
Djoser
and maybe also under king Sekhemkhet.[1] Hesy-Ra's name is of some interest to Egyptologists and Historians alike, because it is linked to the sun god Re. Hesy-Ra, alongside a few high officials at this time, belongs to the first high officials that were allowed to link their names to Re. However, they were not allowed to use the sun disk hieroglyph to write Re's name
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Djoser
Djoser
Djoser
(also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros (from Manetho) and Sesorthos (from Eusebius). He was the son of king Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
and queen Nimaathap, but whether he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear
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Fourth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from c. 2613 to 2494 BC.[1] It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented. Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the Age of the Pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis.Contents1 Pharaohs1.1 Sneferu 1.2 Khufu, Djedefre, Khafre, and Menkaure 1.3 Baka 1.4 Khentkaus I 1.5 Shepseskaf
Shepseskaf
and Djedefptah2 Dynasty IV timeline 3 See also 4 ReferencesPharaohs[edit]Pottery shred with male head in relief and incised torso. Possibly part of pot stand. Nile silt fabric. 4th Dynasty. From Kopots (Qift), Egypt
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Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
The Edwin Smith Papyrus
Papyrus
is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise[2] on trauma. This document, which may have been a manual of military surgery, describes 48 cases of injuries, fractures, wounds, dislocations and tumors.[3] It dates to Dynasties 16–17 of the Second Intermediate Period in ancient Egypt, c. 1600 BCE.[4]:70 The Edwin Smith papyrus is unique among the four principal medical papyri in existence[5] that survive today. While other papyri, such as the Ebers Papyrus
Papyrus
and London Medical Papyrus, are medical texts based in magic, the Edwin Smith Papyrus
Papyrus
presents a rational and scientific approach to medicine in ancient Egypt,[6]:58 in which medicine and magic do not conflict
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Sais
Coordinates: 30°57′53″N 30°46′6″E / 30.96472°N 30.76833°E / 30.96472; 30.76833SaisMap of Sais ruins drawn by Jean-François Champollion
Jean-François Champollion
during his expedition in 1828SaisLocation in EgyptCoordinates: 30°57′53″N 30°46′6″E / 30.96472°N 30.76833°E / 30.96472; 30.76833Country  EgyptGovernorate GharbiaTime zone EST (UTC+2)Sais (Arabic: صا الحجر‎; Ancient Greek: Σάϊς, Coptic: ⲥⲁⲓ) or Sa El Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta
Nile Delta
on the Canopic branch of the Nile.[1] It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome of Lower Egypt
Egypt
and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
(c
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