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History Of Kyrgyzstan
The history of the Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
and the land of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
goes back more than 2,000 years. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous location, it had an important role as part of the historical Silk Road
Silk Road
trade route. In between periods of self-government it was ruled by Göktürks, the Uyghur Empire, and the Khitan people, before being conquered by the Mongols
Mongols
in the 13th century; subsequently it regained independence but was invaded by Kalmyks, Manchus and Uzbeks. In 1876 it became part of the Russian Empire, remaining in the USSR
USSR
as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian Revolution. Following Mikhael Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president of the SSR
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop
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Dzungars
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
in the 17th and 18th centuries. Historically they were one of major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation. They were also known as the Eleuths or Ööled, from the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
euphemism for the hated word "Dzungar",[1] and also called "Kalmyks"
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Altay Mountains
Coordinates: 49°N 89°E / 49°N 89°E / 49; 89Altai MountainsMap of the Altai mountain rangeChinese nameSimplified Chinese 阿尔泰山脉Traditional Chinese 阿爾泰山脈TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Ā'ěrtài ShānmàiMongolian nameMongolian Алтайн нуруу/Altain nurûRussian nameRussian АлтайRomanization AltayKazakh nameKazakh Алтай таулары/Altai’ tay’lary/التاي تاۋلارىUyghur nameUyghur Altay Taghliri/ئالتاي تاغلىرىThe Altai Mountains
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Sayan Mountains
The Sayan Mountains
Sayan Mountains
(Russian: Саяны Sajany; Mongolian: Соёны нуруу, Soyonï nurû; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks[1]) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Russia
Russia
(the Tyva Republic
Tyva Republic
specifically) and northern Mongolia. In the past, it served as the border between Mongolia
Mongolia
and Russia.[2] The Sayan Mountains' towering peaks and cool lakes southwest of Tuva give rise to the tributaries that merge to become one of Siberia's major rivers, the Yenisei River, which flows north over 2000 miles to the Arctic Ocean
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Mongol
The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language
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Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpine
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, variously rendered in English as John of Pian de Carpine, John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (ca 1185[1] – August 1, 1252), was a medieval Italian diplomat, archbishop and explorer and one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Mongol Empire. He is the author of the earliest important Western account of northern and central Asia, Rus, and other regions of the Mongol dominion
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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William Rubruck
William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.[1] His account is one of the masterpieces of medieval geographical literature comparable to that of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta. Born in Rubrouck, Flanders,[2] he is known also as William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck or Willielmus de Rubruquis. He travelled to various places of the Mongol Empire in Asia before his return to Europe.Contents1 Mission 2 Travels 3 Account 4 Editions 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksMission[edit] William accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade in 1248. On May 7, 1253, on Louis' orders, he set out on a missionary journey to convert the Tatars to Christianity.[3] He first stopped in Constantinople to confer with Baldwin of Hainaut, who had recently returned from a trip to Karakorum on behalf of Baldwin II, Latin Emperor
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Turkic Peoples
Islam (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism) Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, ManiThe Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[27] As racial purity has never been a Turkic membership criterion, many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
through language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion in a process called Turkification
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Oirats
Oirats
Oirats
(Mongolian: "ойрад", "ойрд", Oird[needs IPA]; in the past, also Eleuths[1]) are the westernmost group of the Mongols
Mongols
whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia. Although the Oirats
Oirats
originated in the eastern parts of Central Asia, the most prominent group today is located in Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia, where they are called Kalmyks. Historically, the Oirats
Oirats
were composed of four major tribes: Dzungar ( Choros
Choros
or Olots), Torghut, Dörbet, and Khoshut
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Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA)
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Central Europe
Central Europe
to southern Siberia
Siberia
and South Asia.[3][2] While R1a originated ca. 22,000[1] to 25,000[2] years ago, its subclade M-417 (R1a1a1) diversified ca
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Kushan Empire
The Kushan
Kushan
Empire
Empire
(Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Bactrian: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Parthian: Kušan-xšaθr[8]) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century
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Tājik People
Tajik (Dari: تاجيک‎: Tājīk, Tajik: Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin,[14] with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan. As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia.[14] Alternative names for the Tajiks
Tajiks
are Fārsī (Persian), Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Tajik: Деҳқон) literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and also described as a class of land-owning magnates during the Sassanid
Sassanid
and early Islamic period).[15][16] Not all Tajiks
Tajiks
speak a variety of modern Persian
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Bumin Khan
Bumin Qaghan (Old Turkic: , Bumïn qaγan,[2] a.k.a. Bumın Kagan) or Illig Qaghan
Illig Qaghan
(Chinese: 伊利可汗, Pinyin: Yīlì Kèhán, Wade–Giles: i-li k'o-han, died 552 AD) was the founder of the Turkic Khaganate. He was the eldest son of Ashina Tuwu (吐務 / 吐务).[3] He was the chieftain of the Türks under the sovereignty of Rouran Khaganate.[4][5][6][7] He is also mentioned as "Tumen" (土門, 吐門, commander of ten thousand[8]) of the Rouran
Rouran
Khaganate.[9] According to History of Northern Dynasties and Zizhi Tongjian, in 545 Tumen's tribe started to rise and frequently invaded the western frontier of Wei
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