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History Of Ireland (800–1169)
The history of Ireland
Ireland
800–1169 covers the period in the history of Ireland
Ireland
from the first Viking
Viking
raids to the Norman invasion. The first two centuries of this period are characterised by Viking
Viking
raids and the subsequent Norse settlements along the coast. Viking
Viking
ports were established at Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick, which became the first large towns in Ireland. Ireland
Ireland
consisted of many semi-independent túatha, and during the entire period, attempts were made by various factions to gain political control over the whole of the island. For the first two centuries of this period, this was mainly a rivalry between putative High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
from the northern and southern branches of the Uí Néill
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Annals Of Ulster
The Annals
Annals
of Ulster (Irish: Annála Uladh) are annals of medieval Ireland. The entries span the years from A.D.
A.D.
431 to A.D.
A.D.
1540
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1169 In Ireland
←1168 1167 1166 1165 11641169 in Ireland→1170 1171 1172 1173 1174Centuries:11th 12th 13th 14thDecades:1140s 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180sSee also: Other events of 1169 List of years in IrelandEvents from the year 1169 in Ireland.Contents1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 ReferencesEvents[edit]1 May – Norman invasion of Ireland[1] starts with the arrival of Norman military leaders Robert Fitz-Stephen, Maurice FitzGerald and others[2] including Cambro-Norman
Cambro-Norman
knight (and vassal of Henry II of England) Richard de Clare ("Strongbow") who has made an alliance with exiled Irish chief Diarmait Mac Murchada
Diarmait Mac Murchada
to help him regain the throne of Leinster. Wexford,[2] Waterford, Dublin
Dublin
and the Kingdom of Ossory are taken and Mac Murchada restored as King of Leinster.[2]Births[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it
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Waterford
Waterford
Waterford
(from Old Norse
Old Norse
Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord", Irish: Port
Port
Láirge) is a city in Ireland. It is in County Waterford
Waterford
in the south east of Ireland
Ireland
and is part of the province of Munster. The city is situated at the head of Waterford
Waterford
Harbour. It is the oldest[2][3] and the fifth most populous city in the Republic of Ireland. It is the eighth most populous city on the island of Ireland. Waterford
Waterford
City
City
and County Council is the local government authority for the city
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Cork (city)
Cork (/kɔːrk/; Irish: Corcaigh, pronounced [ˈkoɾkɪɟ], from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.[3] The city is situated on the River Lee
River Lee
which splits into two channels at the western end and divides the city centre into islands. They reconverge at the eastern end where the quays and docks along the river banks lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, which is one of the largest natural harbours in the world by navigational area.[6][7] Expanded by Viking
Viking
invaders around 915, the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185
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Limerick
Limerick
Limerick
(/ˈlɪmrɪk, -mərɪk/;[4] Irish: Luimneach [ˈl̪imʲɨnʲəx]) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council
Limerick City and County Council
is the local authority for the city. The city lies on the River Shannon, with the historic core of the city located on King's Island, which is bounded by the Shannon and the Abbey River. Limerick
Limerick
is also located at the head of the Shannon Estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean
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Túatha
A túath (plural túatha) was a medieval Irish polity smaller than a kingdom. The word is from Old Irish, and is often translated as "people" or "nation". It is cognate with the Welsh and Breton tud (people), the Galician toudo, and the Germanic þeudō (for which see theodiscus). The term "túath" referred to both a geographical territory and the people who lived on that territory.[1] In Modern Irish it is spelled tuath, without the fada (length mark), and means "countryside". In ancient Irish terms, a household was reckoned at about 30 people per dwelling. A trícha cét ("thirty hundreds"), was an area comprising 100 dwellings or, roughly, 3,000 people. A túath consisted of a number of allied trícha céta, and therefore referred to no fewer than 6,000 people
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High Kings Of Ireland
The High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
(Irish: Ard- na hÉireann Irish pronunciation: [ˈa:ɾˠd̪ˠˌɾˠiː n̪ˠə ˈheːrʲən̪ˠ]) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland. Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from the Hill of Tara
Hill of Tara
over a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years
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Uí Néill
The Uí Néill (Irish pronunciation: [iː ˈnʲeːl̪ʲ], descendants of Niall) are Irish and Scottish dynasties who claim descent from Niall Noigiallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages), a historical King of Tara who died about 405.Contents1 Branches 2 Uí Néil
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Brian Boru
Brian Boru
Brian Boru
(Old Irish: Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig; Middle Irish: Brian Bóruma; modern Irish: Brian Bóramha; c. 941 – 23 April 1014) was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland
Ireland
by the Uí Néill. Building on the achievements of his father, Cennétig mac Lorcain, and especially his elder brother, Mathgamain, Brian first made himself King of Munster, then subjugated Leinster, eventually becoming King of Ireland. He was the founder of the O'Brien dynasty. With a population of under 500,000 people, Ireland
Ireland
had over 150 kings, with greater or lesser domains.[1] The Uí Néill king Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, abandoned by his northern kinsmen of the Cenél nEógain and Cenél Conaill, acknowledged Brian as High King at Athlone
Athlone
in 1002
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Normans
The Normans
Normans
(Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France
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Richard De Clare, 2nd Earl Of Pembroke
Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Earl of Pembroke
(of the first creation), Lord of Leinster, Justiciar of Ireland (1130 – 20 April 1176) was a Welsh-Norman lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ireland. Like his father, Richard fitz Gilbert has since become commonly known by his nickname Strongbow (Norman French: Arc-Fort) which may be a mistranscription or mistranslation of Striguil. His son Gilbert de Striguil, or Strigoil, died unmarried before 1189. As a minor, he never became an earl, thus the earldom was passed with Richard’s daughter Isabel to her spouse William Marshall
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Eoin MacNeill
Eóin MacNeill (Irish: Eóin Mac Néill; 15 May 1867 – 15 October 1945) was an Irish scholar, Irish language
Irish language
enthusiast, nationalist activist, and Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
politician.[1] MacNeill has been described as "the father of the modern study of early Irish medieval history".[2] A key figure of the Gaelic revival, he was a co-founder of the Gaelic League, to preserve Irish language
Irish language
and culture. He established the Irish Volunteers
Irish Volunteers
in 1913, and served as its Chief-of-Staff. He held this position at the outbreak of the Easter Rising but had no role in the Rising or its planning, which was carried out by infiltrators from the Irish Republican Brotherhood. MacNeill helped countermand the Easter Monday uprising, after learning about it and confronting Patrick Pearse, by placing a last-minute news advertisement advising Volunteers not to take part
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Dublin
Dublin
Dublin
(/ˈdʌblɪn/, Irish: Baile Átha Cliath[11] Irish pronunciation: [ˌbʲlʲɑː ˈclʲiə]) is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.[12][13] Dublin
Dublin
is located in the province of Leinster
Leinster
on the east coast of Ireland, at the mouth of the River Liffey and bordered on the South by the Wicklow Mountains
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Textual Criticism
Textual criticism
Textual criticism
is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books. Scribes
Scribes
can make alterations when copying manuscripts by hand.[1] Given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic might seek to reconstruct the original text (the archetype or autograph) as closely as possible. The same processes can be used to attempt to reconstruct intermediate versions, or recensions, of a document's transcription history.[2] The objective of the textual critic's work is a better understanding of the creation and historical transmission of texts. This understanding may lead to the production of a "critical edition" containing a scholarly curated text. There are many approaches to textual criticism, notably eclecticism, stemmatics, and copy-text editing
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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