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History Of Bali
The HISTORY OF BALI covers a period from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
to the present, and is characterized by migrations of people and cultures from other parts of Asia
Asia
. In the 16th century, the history of Bali started to be marked by Western influence with the arrival of Europeans, to become, after a long and difficult colonial period under the Dutch , an example of the preservation of traditional cultures and a key tourist destination
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Aceh Sultanate
The SULTANATE OF ACEH, officially the KINGDOM OF ACEH DARUSSALAM (Acehnese : Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë : كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate
Sultanate
centred in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh . It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline. Its capital was Kutaraja , the present-day Banda Aceh . At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Johor and Portuguese -controlled Malacca , both on the Malayan Peninsula
Malayan Peninsula
, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success. In addition to its considerable military strength, the court of Aceh became a noted centre of Islamic scholarship and trade
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Demak Sultanate
The DEMAK SULTANATE was a Javanese Muslim
Muslim
state located on Java
Java
's north coast in Indonesia
Indonesia
, at the site of the present day city of Demak . A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam
Islam
brought by Muslim
Muslim
traders from China
China
, Gujarat
Gujarat
, Arabia
Arabia
and also from Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai and Champa . The sultanate was the first Muslim
Muslim
state in Java, and once dominated most of the northern coast of Java
Java
and southern Sumatra
Sumatra

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Banten Sultanate
The BANTEN SULTANATE was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten
Banten
, a port city on the northwest coast of Java
Java
; the contemporary English spelling of both was BANTAM. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati , who had previously founded Cirebon
Cirebon
. Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, especially of pepper , its importance was overshadowed by Batavia , and finally annexed to Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
in 1813. Its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten
Banten
. Today, in Old Banten , the Grand Mosque
Mosque
of Banten is an important destination for tourists and for pilgrims from across Indonesia
Indonesia
and from overseas
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Kalinyamat Sultanate
KALINYAMAT SULTANATE, KALINYAMAT KINGDOM or JEPARA KINGDOM, was a 16th-century Javanese Islamic polity in the northern part of the island of Java, centred in modern-day Jepara
Jepara
, Central Java
Central Java
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. Both Jepara
Jepara
and Kalinyamat was first established as a Duchy
Duchy
(Javanese : Kadipaten) settlements under Demak Sultanate
Demak Sultanate
. After succession feud, Kalinyamat was declared as a separate polity from Demak. Traditional accounts provide the names of several of its leaders; Sultan Hadlirin , and his wife and also successor, Retna Kencana (Ratu Kalinyamat ) (r. 1549–1579)
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Mataram Sultanate
The SULTANATE OF MATARAM /məˈtɑːrəm/ was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java
Java
before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java
Java
from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Agung Hanyokrokusumo (r. 1613 – 1645), and began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both power and territory to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC). It had become a vassal state of the company by 1749
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Sultanate Of Cirebon
The SULTANATE OF CIREBON (Indonesian : Kesultanan Cirebon, Sundanese : Kasultanan Cirebon) was an Islamic
Islamic
sultanate in West Java
West Java
founded in the 15th century. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati , marked by his letter proclaiming Cirebon's independence from Pajajaran in 1482, although the settlement and the polity had been established earlier in 1445. Sunan Gunungjati also established the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Banten
Banten
. It was one of the earliest Islamic
Islamic
states established in Java, along with the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Demak . The sultanate's capital lay around the modern day city of Cirebon
Cirebon
on Java's northern coast
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Sultanate Of Sulu
NEOLITHIC AGE * Callao and Tabon peoples * Arrival of the Negritos * Austronesian expansion * Angono Petroglyphs
Angono Petroglyphs
* Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens
Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens
* Jade cultur
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Samudera Pasai Sultanate
SAMUDERA PASAI, also known as SAMUDERA and PASAI sometimes called SAMUDERA DARUSSALAM was a Muslim
Muslim
harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
from the 13th to the 16th centuries CE. The kingdom was believed to have been founded by Merah Silu, who later converted to Islam
Islam
and adopted the name Malik ul Salih , in the year 1267 CE. Little evidence has been left to allow for historical study of the kingdom. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 List of rulers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGYBased on the local literature Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai
Pasai
, 'Samudera' can be inferred to have come from the word 'Semudera' (), which meant 'a very large ant'. The name was given by Merah Silu when he discovered an ant as large as a cat while hunting at a 'high ground'
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Pagaruyung Kingdom
PAGARUYUNG (also PAGARRUYUNG, PAGAR RUYUNG and, MALAYAPURA or MALAYUPURA) was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra , though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar , Indonesia
Indonesia
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 Padri War
Padri War
* 2 Notes * 3 Sources HISTORY Adityawarman
Adityawarman
statue in the National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia
BEGINNINGS Adityawarman
Adityawarman
is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra
Sumatra
region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artefacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues
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Bruneian Empire
The BRUNEIAN EMPIRE or EMPIRE OF BRUNEI /bruːˈnaɪ/ , also known as SULTANATE OF BRUNEI or NEGARA BRUNEI, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei
Brunei
on the northern coast of Borneo
Borneo
island in Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded in the early 7th century, started as a small seafaring trading kingdom ruled by a native pagan or Hindu
Hindu
king known by the Chinese as Po-Li or Po-Ni (渤泥). Bruneian kings converted to Islam
Islam
around the 15th century, when it grew substantially since the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese , extending throughout coastal areas of Borneo
Borneo
and the Philippines, before it declined in the 17th century
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Malacca Sultanate
The MALACCA SULTANATE (Malay : Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script : كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca , Malaysia
Malaysia
. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura , Parameswara who was also known as Iskandar Shah . :245–246 At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula , Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
. As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language
Malay language
, literature and arts
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Johor Sultanate
The SULTANATE OF JOHOR (or sometimes JOHOR-RIAU or JOHOR-RIAU-LINGGA or JOHOR EMPIRE) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor , Riau , and territories stretching from the river Klang to the Linggi and Tanjung Tuan , Muar , Batu Pahat , Singapore
Singapore
, Pulau Tinggi and other islands off the east coast of the Malay peninsula , the Karimun islands, the islands of Bintan , Bulang , Lingga and Bunguran , and Bengkalis , Kampar and Siak in Sumatra
Sumatra

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Siak Sultanate
The SULTANATE OF SIAK SRI INDRAPURA, often called SULTANATE OF SIAK (Indonesian: KESULTANAN SIAK SRI INDERAPURA; Jawi : كسولتانن سياق سري ايندراڤورا‎), was a kingdom that was located in the Siak Regency
Siak Regency
, Riau
Riau
from 1723 to 1946 CE. It was founded by Raja Kecik from the Johor Kingdom (SULTAN ABDUL JALIL RAHMAD SYAH I), after he failed to seize the throne of the Sultanate of Johor . Group portrait of the Sultan of Siak and his retinue After Indonesia's Independence was proclaimed on 17 August 1945, the last sultan of Siak ( Sultan Syarif Kasim II ) declared his kingdom to have joined the Republic of Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia

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French And British Interludes In The Dutch East Indies
FRENCH AND BRITISH INTERLUDES IN THE DUTCH EAST INDIES were a relatively short period of French and followed by British rules on the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
that took place between 1806 and 1815. The French ruled between 1806 and 1811. The British took over for 1811 to 1815, and transferred its control back to the Dutch in 1815. The fall of the Netherlands to the French Empire and the dissolution of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
led to some profound changes in the European colonial administration of the East Indies
East Indies
, as one of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
was fought in Java
Java
. This period, which lasted for almost a decade, witnessed a tremendous change in Java, as vigorous infrastructure and defence projects took place, followed by battles, reformation and major changes of administration in the colony
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Dutch East India Company In Indonesia
The DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY (Dutch : Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, "United East India Company"; VOC) had a presence in the INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO from 1603, when the first trading post was established, to 1800, when the bankrupt company was dissolved, and its possessions nationalised as the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Early settlements * 3 Expansion * 4 Impacts * 5 Notes * 6 References BACKGROUNDA 1596 Dutch expedition lost half its crew, killed a Javanese prince and lost a ship but returned to the Dutch Republic with a load of spices, the profit from which encouraged other expeditions. Recognising the potential of the East Indies spice trade , and to prevent competition eating into Dutch profits, the Dutch Government amalgamated the competing merchant companies into the United East India Company (VOC)
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