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History Of Skiing
SKIING , or traveling over snow on skis , has a history of at least eight millennia. The earliest archaeological examples of skis were found in Russia and date to 6000 BCE. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, 10,000-year-old wall paintings suggest use of skis in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region of what is now China
China
. Originally purely utilitarian, starting in the mid-1800s skiing became a popular recreational activity and sport, becoming practiced in snow-covered regions worldwide, and providing a market for the development of ski resorts and their related communities
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Procopius
PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA (Greek : Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Latin : Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. 554 AD) was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima . Accompanying the Roman general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian , he became the principal Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars (or Histories), the Buildings of Justinian and the now-celebrated (and infamous) Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient Western world
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Skaði
In Norse mythology , SKAðI (sometimes anglicized as SKADI, SKADE, or SKATHI) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting , skiing , winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the Poetic Edda , compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and in Heimskringla , written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson , and in the works of skalds . In all sources, Skaði is the daughter of the deceased Þjazi , and Skaði married the god Njörðr as part of the compensation provided by the gods for killing her father Þjazi. In Heimskringla, Skaði is described as having split up with Njörðr and as later having married the god Odin , and that the two produced many children together
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Egil Skallagrimsson
EGILL SKALLAGRíMSSON (c. 904 – c. 995 ) was a Viking-Age poet, warrior and farmer. He is also the protagonist of the eponymous Egil\'s Saga . Egil's Saga historically narrates a period from approximately 850 to 1000 CE and is believed to have been written between 1220 and 1240 CE. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Issue * 3 Poems * 4 Runes * 5 Egill in popular culture * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 References * 9 External links LIFE The following is based on the Icelandic saga "Egil\'s saga "; like many sagas , it can be unreliable as a source of historical fact. Egill engaging in holmgang with Berg-Önundr; painting by Johannes Flintoe Egill was born in Iceland , the son of Skalla-Grímr Kveldúlfsson and Bera Yngvarsdóttir, and the grandson of Kveld-Úlfr ("Night Wolf"). His ancestor, Hallbjorn, was Norwegian-Sami . When Grímr arrived in Iceland, he settled at Borg , the place where his father's coffin landed
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Haakon The Good
HAAKON HARALDSSON (c. 920–961), also HAAKON THE GOOD (Old Norse : Hákon góði, Norwegian : Håkon den gode) and HAAKON ADALSTEINFOSTRE (Old Norse : Hákon Aðalsteinsfóstri, Norwegian : Håkon Adalsteinsfostre), was the king of Norway
Norway
from 934 to 961. He was noted for his attempts to introduce Christianity
Christianity
into Norway. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Succession * 4 Modern references * 5 Ancestors from the sagas * 6 Note * 7 References * 8 Other sources * 9 External links EARLY LIFEHaakon is not mentioned in any narrative sources earlier than the late 12th century. According to this late saga tradition, Haakon was the youngest son of King Harald Fairhair and Thora Mosterstang . He was born on the Håkonshella peninsula in Hordaland
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Gulating
GULATING ( Old Norse
Old Norse
: Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Judgments * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Other sources * 6 External links HISTORYThe Gulaþing was an annual parliamentary assembly which took place in Gulen
Gulen
, on the west coast of Norway
Norway
north of Bergen
Bergen
, from approximately 900 to 1300 AD and was one of the oldest and largest parliamentary assemblies in medieval Norway. The Gulatinget Millennium Site is a symbol of the history of this Norwegian representative form of parliament, with traditions reaching over a thousand years back in time
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Ullr
In early Germanic paganism , *WULþUZ ("glory ") appears to have been an important concept, perhaps personified as a god , or an epithet of an important god; it is continued Old Norse
Old Norse
tradition as ULLR, a god associated with archery and skiing . CONTENTS* 1 Literary tradition * 1.1 Epigraphy * 1.2 Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
* 1.3 Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
* 1.4 Prose Edda
Prose Edda
* 1.5 Skaldic poetry
Skaldic poetry
* 2 Toponymy * 2.1 Norway * 2.2 Sweden * 3 Modern reception * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LITERARY TRADITIONThe term wolþu- "glory" (c.f
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Norse Mythology
NORSE MYTHOLOGY is the body of mythology of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism
Norse paganism
and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology , Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition
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Salla
SALLA (Kuolajärvi until 1936) is a municipality of Finland
Finland
, located in Lapland . The municipality has a population of 3,705 (31 March 2016) and covers an area of 5,730.06 square kilometres (2,212.39 sq mi) of which 142.73 km2 (55.11 sq mi) is water. The population density is 0.65 inhabitants per square kilometre (1.7/sq mi). Neighbour municipalities are Kemijärvi , Kuusamo
Kuusamo
, Pelkosenniemi , Posio and Savukoski . The nearby settlement of Sallatunturi is home to the Salla
Salla
Ski Resort. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Communications * 3 Climate * 4 Historical places * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Salla
Salla
is in the Eastern Lapland and as a border area was affected by the Second World War
Second World War

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Kalvträskskidan
KALVTRäSKSKIDAN ("the Kalvträsk ski") is among the oldest skis ever found. It was found in the autumn of 1924, as a group of men digging a ditch through a mire near the village of Kalvträsk close to Skellefteå , Sweden encountered some wooden objects at a depth of 1.5 metres. They carefully extracted the objects that turned out to be two skis measuring 204 cm by 15.5 cm and a shovel shaped ski pole measuring 156 cm. The objects were kept in a shed that winter before being turned into a museum the following summer. By that time one of the skis had started to wither and fall apart, so that only a few fragments of it remain. Thankfully the other ski is still more or less intact. An original dating using pollen analysis of pollen from the site suggested that the skis were 4000 years old, but later carbon dating has shown evidence that they are around 5200 years old, i.e. older than the pyramids of ancient Egypt
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Greenland
GREENLAND (Greenlandic : Kalaallit Nunaat, pronounced ; Danish : Grønland, pronounced ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America
North America
, Greenland
Greenland
has been politically and culturally associated with Europe
Europe
(specifically Norway
Norway
and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland
Iceland
) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit
Inuit
, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island
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Reinheimen National Park
REINHEIMEN NATIONAL PARK (Norwegian : Reinheimen nasjonalpark) is a national park in Norway
Norway
that was established in 2006. The park consists of a 1,969-square-kilometre (760 sq mi) continuous protected mountain area. It is located in Møre og Romsdal
Møre og Romsdal
and Oppland
Oppland
counties in Western Norway
Norway
. The park includes parts of the municipalities of Lesja , Skjåk , Vågå , Lom , Norddal , and Rauma . The park consists of much of the Tafjordfjella mountain range as well as the reindeer habitat in the northern part of the Ottadalen valley. The park is one of the largest wilderness areas still intact in Western Norway
Norway
. Much of the original alpine ecosystem, including wild reindeer, wolverines , golden eagles , gyr falcons , and ptarmigans , is still intact
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Ski Warfare
SKI WARFARE, the use of ski -equipped troops in war , is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
* 1.2 World War
War
I * 1.3 World War
War
II * 2 Contemporary usage * 3 Other information * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYNAPOLEONIC WARS Denmark-Norway (though only Norwegian) ski troops were used against Sweden
Sweden
during the 1807–1814 Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. WORLD WAR IDuring WWI the Italian Army
Italian Army
raised 88 Alpini Battalions. Their purpose was to fight summer and winter in the highest regions of the Alpine Arch. Most of the battalions were dissolved after WWI
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War
WAR is a state of armed conflict between states or societies . It is generally characterized by extreme aggression , destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces . An absence of war is usually called "peace ". WARFARE refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war
Total war
is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets , and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties . While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature , others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War II
World War II
, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests at up to 60 million
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Snowshoe Thompson
JOHN ALBERT THOMPSON (born JON TORSTEINSSON RUE; April 30, 1827 – May 15, 1876), nicknamed SNOWSHOE THOMPSON, an early resident of the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
of Nevada
Nevada
and California
California
, was a Norwegian-American considered to be the father of California
California
skiing . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Mail
Mail
delivery * 3 Personal life * 4 Legacy * 5 Thompson in popular culture * 6 References * 7 Other sources * 8 Related reading * 9 External links BACKGROUNDJON TORSTEINSSON RUE was born on the Rue farm in Austbygdi , Tinn in Telemark
Telemark
, Norway
Norway
. He was the son of Torsten Olsen Rue (ca. 1760-1829) and Gro Jonsdatter Håkaland (1781-ca. 1846). His father died when Thompson was 2 years old
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Trondheim
TRONDHEIM (Norwegian pronunciation: ), historically KAUPANGEN, NIDAROS and TRONDHJEM, is a city and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway
Norway
. It has a population of 187,353 (January 1, 2016), and is the third most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area . It is the third largest city in the country, with a population (2013) of 169,972 inhabitants within the city borders. The city functions as the administrative centre of Sør-Trøndelag county. Trondheim
Trondheim
lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the river Nidelva
Nidelva
. The city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research ( SINTEF ), St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions
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