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History Of Rail Transport In Great Britain
The railway system of Great Britain, the principal territory of the United Kingdom, is the oldest in the world. It was started with the building of local isolated wooden wagonways starting in 1560s. The system was later built as a patchwork of local rail links operated by small private railway companies in late 18th century. These isolated links developed during the railway boom of the 1840s into a national network, although still run by dozens of competing companies. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, these amalgamated or were bought by competitors until only a handful of larger companies remained (see railway mania). The entire network was brought under government control during the First World War
First World War
and a number of advantages of amalgamation and planning were revealed. However, the government resisted calls for the nationalisation of the network
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Cast Iron
Cast iron
Cast iron
is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.[1] Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon
Carbon
(C) ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt%, are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. Cast iron
Cast iron
tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons
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Caldbeck
Caldbeck
Caldbeck
is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale, Cumbria, England. Historically within Cumberland, the village had 714 inhabitants according to the census of 2001,[1] increasing to 737 at the 2011 Census.[2] It lies on the northern edge of the Lake District. The nearest town is Wigton, 6 miles north west of the village. In the last few years it has seen a massive house price boom, with many properties more than doubling their value over a couple of years. The village is popular with tourists from across the globe. Caldbeck's most infamous/famous former resident is the hunter John Peel, whose grave is in the local churchyard
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Swansea And Mumbles Railway
Swansea
Swansea
(/ˈswɒnzi/; Welsh: Abertawe [abɛrˈtawɛ]), officially known as the City and County of Swansea
Swansea
(Welsh: Dinas a Sir Abertawe), is a coastal city and county in Wales.[2] Swansea
Swansea
lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast.[3] The county area includes Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) and the Gower Peninsula. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea
Swansea
had a population of 241,300 in 2014. The last official census stated that the city, metropolitan and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011,[4] making it the second most populous local authority area in Wales
Wales
after Cardiff
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Wrought Iron
Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a "grain" resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. It was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is mild or low carbon steel
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John Birkenshaw
John Birkinshaw
John Birkinshaw
was a 19th-century railway engineer from Bedlington, Northumberland
Northumberland
noted for his invention of wrought iron rails in 1820. Up to this point, rail systems had used either wooden rails, which were totally incapable of supporting steam engines, or cast iron rails typically only 3 feet in length
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Hatfield Rail Crash
The Hatfield rail crash
Hatfield rail crash
was a railway accident on 17 October 2000, at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. It was caused by a metal fatigue-induced derailment, killing four people and injuring more than 70. Though the accident did not result in a large number of deaths, it exposed major stewardship shortcomings of the privatised national railway infrastructure company Railtrack. Reports found there was a lack of communication and some staff were not aware of maintenance procedures. Railtrack
Railtrack
subsequently went into administration and was replaced by Network Rail. The aftermath of the accident saw widespread speed limit reductions throughout the rail network and a tightening of health and safety procedures, the repercussions of which were still felt up to 15 years later
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Flange
A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam
I-beam
or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term "flange" is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges
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British Rail Class 87
The British Rail Class 87
British Rail Class 87
is a type of electric locomotive built in 1973–75 by British Rail Engineering Limited. Thirty-six of these locomotives were built to work passenger services over the West Coast Main Line (WCML). They were the flagships of British Rail's electric locomotive fleet until the late 1980s, when the Class 90s started to come on stream. The privatisation of British Rail saw all but one of the fleet transferred to Virgin Trains. They continued their duties until the advent of the new Class 390 Pendolinos, when they were transferred to other operators or withdrawn. There is only one Class 87 still in use in Britain, 87002, owned by the AC Locomotive Group and used by Serco
Serco
to work the empty coaching stock of the Caledonian Sleeper services and for the occasional charter train
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Cumbria
Cumbria
Cumbria
(English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə; locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə] KUUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
on the southwestern tip of the county. The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million
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Rail Subsidies
Many countries offer subsidies to their railways because of the social and economic benefits that it brings. Those countries usually also fund or subsidize road construction, and therefore effectively subsidize road transport as well. Rail subsidies
Rail subsidies
vary in both size and how they are distributed, with some countries funding the infrastructure and others funding trains and their operators, while others have a mixture of both
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Prescot
Prescot
Prescot
is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley in Merseyside, England. Historically part of Lancashire, it lies about eight miles (13 km) to the east of Liverpool
Liverpool
city centre. At the 2001 Census, the civil parish population was 11,184 (5,265 males, 5,919 females).[1] The population of the larger Prescot East and West wards at the 2011 census totalled 14,139.[2][3] Prescot marks the beginning of the A58 road
A58 road
which runs through to Wetherby, West Yorkshire
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Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool
(/ˈlɪvərpuːl/) is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 484,578 in 2016 within the City
City
of Liverpool borough.[5] With its surrounding areas, it is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the UK, with over 2.24 million people in 2011.[6] The local authority is Liverpool
Liverpool
City
City
Council, the most populous local government district within the metropolitan county of Merseyside
Merseyside
and the largest within the Liverpool
Liverpool
City
City
Region. Liverpool
Liverpool
is located on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, and historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby
West Derby
in the south west of the county of Lancashire.[7][8] It became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880
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Wollaton Wagonway
The Wollaton
Wollaton
Wagonway
Wagonway
(or Waggonway), built between October 1603 and 1604 in the East Midlands
East Midlands
of England
England
by Huntingdon Beaumont in partnership with Sir Percival Willoughby,[1] has sometimes been credited as the world's first overground wagonway and therefore regarded as a significant step in the development of railways. Its primacy has been recently questioned because of a wagonway built at Prescot, near Liverpool, sometime around 1600 and possibly as early as 1594. Owned by Philip Layton, this line carried coal from a pit near Prescot
Prescot
Hall to a terminus about half a mile away.[2] Also, a wagonway at Broseley
Broseley
in Shropshire was probably earlier.[3] The wagonway was the earliest form of railway
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Tanfield Wagonway
The Tanfield Railway
Tanfield Railway
is a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge heritage railway in Gateshead
Gateshead
and County Durham, England. Running on part of a former colliery wooden wagonway, later a steam railway, it operates preserved industrial diesel and steam tank locomotives. The railway operates a passenger service on Sundays all year round, as well as demonstration freight trains. The line runs 3 miles (4.8 km) between a southern terminus at East Tanfield, Durham, to a northern terminus at Sunniside, Gateshead, with the main station, Andrews House situated near to the Marley Hill
Marley Hill
engine shed. A halt also serves the historic site of the Causey Arch
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Wagonways
Wagonways (or Waggonways) consisted of the horses, equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons, which preceded steam-powered railways. The terms plateway, tramway and dramway were used. The advantage of wagonways was that far bigger loads could be transported with the same power.Contents1 Ancient systems 2 Wooden rails 3 Metal rails3.1 Plateways, Flangeways 3.2 Edgeways4 Steam power 5 Pole road 6 Decline 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksAncient systems[edit] The earliest[citation needed] evidence is of the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos
Diolkos
paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece
Greece
from around 600 BC.[1][2][3][4][5] Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route
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