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History Of Education In China
The history of education in China began with the birth of the Chinese civilization. Nobles often set up educational establishments for their offspring. Establishment of the imperial examinations (advocated in the Warring States period, originated in Han, founded in Tang) was instrumental in the transition from an aristocratic to a meritocratic government
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Mohism
Mohism
Mohism
or Moism (Chinese: 墨家; pinyin: Mòjiā; literally: "School of Mo") was an ancient Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi
Mozi
(c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi. It evolved at about the same time as Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
and Legalism, and was one of the four main philosophic schools from around 770–221 BC (during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods). During that time, Mohism
Mohism
was seen as a major rival to Confucianism
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Northern And Southern Dynasties
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Eastern Wu
Jianye (229–265, 266–280)Languages ChineseReligion Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religionGovernment MonarchyKing (222–229) Emperor (229–280) •  222–252 Sun Quan •  252–258 Sun Liang •  258–264 Sun Xiu •  264–280 Sun HaoHistorical era Three Kingdoms •  Independence from Cao Wei 222 •  Sun Quan
Sun Quan
declaring himself Emperor 229 •  Conquest of Wu by Jin 31 May 280[1]Population •  238[2] est. 2,567,00
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Shu Han
Shu or Shu Han
Shu Han
(221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China
China
in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan
Sichuan
named Shu
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Zhou Dynasty (690–705)
The Zhou dynasty (/dʒoʊ/;[1] Chinese: 周), also called the Second Zhou dynasty or Restored Zhou dynasty, was a Chinese dynasty established by Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
in 690, when she proclaimed herself huangdi (emperor). The dynasty interrupted the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
until its abolition in 705, when Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
abdicated and the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was restored. Its sole ruler was Wu Zhao, who took the name Wu Zetian
Wu Zetian
upon her coronation. Wu named her dynasty after the ancient Zhou Dynasty, from whom she believed herself to be descended. History[edit] The dynasty's capital was Shendu[2] (神都 divine capital, present-day Luoyang)
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Xin Dynasty
The Xin dynasty
Xin dynasty
(/ʃɪn/; Chinese: 新朝; pinyin: Xīn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Hsin Ch'ao) was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.[3] It interrupted the Han dynasty, dividing it into the periods of the Western Han
Western Han
and the Eastern Han. The sole emperor of the Xin dynasty, Wang Mang, was the nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun. After the death of her step-grandson Emperor
Emperor
Ai in 1 BC, Wang Mang
Wang Mang
rose to power. After several years of cultivating a personality cult, he finally proclaimed himself emperor in 9 AD. However, while a creative scholar and politician, he was an incompetent ruler, and his capital Chang'an
Chang'an
was besieged by peasant rebels in 23 AD
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Timeline Of Chinese History
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China
China
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of rulers of China, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties in Chinese history and years in China. Dates prior to 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe Regency, are provisional and subject to dispute. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Prehistory / Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd · See also · Further reading · External links Prehistoric China[edit]Year Date Event780000 BC Peking Man
Peking Man
died in modern Zhoukoudian.125000-80000 BCH
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Linguistic History Of China
The languages of China
China
are the languages that are spoken in China. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major language groups ( classified as dialects by the Chinese government for political reasons), is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China.[5] Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary varieties, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that they will often be mutually unintelligible, similarly to English and German or Danish. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang
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List Of Neolithic Cultures Of China
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThis is a list of Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures of China
China
that have been unearthed by archaeologists. They are sorted in chronological order from earliest to latest and are followed by a schematic visualization of these cultures. It would seem that the definition of Neolithic
Neolithic
in China
China
is undergoing changes
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Aristocracy
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.[1] The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".[2] The term is synonymous with hereditary government, and hereditary succession is its primary philosophy, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit. At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual
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Meritocracy
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement.[1] Advancement in such a system is based on performance, as measured through examination or demonstrated achievement
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Six Arts
The Six Arts formed the basis of education in ancient Chinese culture.Contents1 History 2 Influence 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] During the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
(1122–256 BCE), students were required to master the "liù yì" (六藝) (Six Arts):Rites (禮) Music (樂) Archery
Archery
(射) Charioteering (御) Calligraphy (書) Mathematics (數)Men who excelled in these six arts were thought to have reached the state of perfection, a perfect gentleman. The Six Arts were practiced by scholars and they already existed before Confucius, but became a part of Confucian philosophy. As such, Xu Gan (170–217 CE) discusses them in the Balanced Discourses. The Six Arts were practiced by the 72 disciples of Confucius.[1] The Six Arts concept developed during the pre-imperial period. It incorporated both military and civil components
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old Texts New Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in I
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Confucius
Confucius
Confucius
(/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC – 479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
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Chinese Historiography
Chinese historiography
Chinese historiography
is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.Contents1 Overview of Chinese history 2 Key organizing concepts2.1 Dynastic cycle 2.2 Multi-ethnic history 2.3 Marxism 2.4 Modernization 2.5 Hydraulic despotism 2.6 Convergence 2.7 Anti-imperialism 2.8 Republican 2.9 Postmodernism3 Recent trends 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and further reading 7 External linksOverview of Chinese history[edit] The recording of Chinese history
Chinese history
dates back to the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC). Although they are not literature as such, many written examples survive of ceremonial inscriptions, divinations and records of family names, which were carved or painted onto tortoise shell or bones.[1][2] The oldest surviving history texts of China were compiled in the Shujing (Book of Documents, 書經)
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