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High Frequency
High frequency
High frequency
(HF) is the ITU designation[1] for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). It is also known as the decameter band or decameter wave as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF), while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies, so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio. Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave" propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances
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Megahertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Band VI
Band VI is a radio frequency range within the super high frequency (SHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum.[1][2][3] One source states that Band VI ranges from 11.7 to 12.5 GHz,[1] whilst other earlier sources state the range as 11.7 to 12.7 GHz.[2][3] The band is used for direct-broadcast satellite (DBS)[1] and amateur radio astronomy.[4] References[edit]^ a b c "UK BROADCASTING BANDS" (PDF). TheSkywaves.NET. 2003-01-01. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  ^ a b "Latest statistics on radio and television broadcasting" (PDF). UNESCO, Division of Statistics on Culture and Communication Office of Statistics. 1987. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  ^ a b "SATELLITE BROADCASTING: A ZONED REFLECTOR AERIAL FOR THEDOMESTIC RECEPTION OF BAND VI" (PDF). BBC Research & Development. 1972. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  ^ "radioastronomy with a small 12 GHz satellitedish". Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers. 2008-09-03
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Band IV
Band IV is the name of a radio frequency range within the ultra high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum.[1][2][3][4][5] Sources differ on the exact frequency range of the band. For example, the Swiss Federal Office of Communications,[1] the Broadcast engineer's reference book[2] and Ericsson
Ericsson
India Ltd[3] all define the range of Band IV from 470 to 582 MHz
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Band V
Band V (meaning Band 5) is the name of a radio frequency range within the ultra high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum.[1][2] It is not to be confused with the V band
V band
in the extremely high frequency part of the spectrum. Sources differ on the exact frequency range of UHF Band V. For example, the Broadcast engineer's reference book[1] and the BBC[2] define the range as 614 to 854 MHz. The IPTV India Forum define the range as 582 to 806 MHz[3] and the DVB Worldwide website refers to the range as 585 to 806 MHz.[4] Band V is primarily used for analogue and digital ( DVB-T
DVB-T
& ATSC) television broadcasting, as well as radio microphones and services intended for mobile devices such as DVB-H
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Band II
Band II is the range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 87.5 to 108.0 megahertz (MHz).Contents1 Radio 2 Broadcast television2.1 Usage in Russia and in other former members of OIRT3 ReferencesRadio[edit] Band II is primarily used worldwide for FM radio broadcasting.[1] Broadcast television[edit] Usage in Russia and in other former members of OIRT[edit] In the former Soviet Union and other countries-members of OIRT, frequencies from 76 MHz to 100 MHz were designated for broadcast television usage.[2] Considering 8 MHz channel bandwidth used by the Russian analog television system (System D), the following
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Decametre
A decametre or dekametre[citation needed] (American spelling: dekameter, earlier decameter[citation needed]; symbol dam,[1] sometimes unofficially Dm or dkm) is a very rarely used unit of length in the metric system, equal to ten metres. This measure is included in the SI mostly for completeness: in principle, any combination of prefix and unit can be written, but many are rarely used in practice. One practical use of the decameter is for altitude of geopotential heights in meteorology
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Band I
Band I is a range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Band I ranges from 47 to 68 MHz
MHz
for the European Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Area,[1] and from 54 to 88 MHz for the Americas[2] and it is primarily used for television broadcasting in line to ITU Radio Regulations (article 1.38)
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Band III
Band III is the name of the range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 174 to 240 megahertz (MHz). It is primarily used for radio and television broadcasting
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Electromagnetic Wave
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.[1] It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.[2] Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave. The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere. The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies. The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from below one hertz to above 1025 hertz, corresponding to wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus. This frequency range is divided into separate bands, and the electromagnetic waves within each frequency band are called by different names; beginning at the low frequency (long wavelength) end of the spectrum these are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays at the high-frequency (short wavelength) end. The electromagnetic waves in each of these bands have different characteristics, such as how they are produced, how they interact with matter, and their practical applications
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Terahertz Radiation
Terahertz radiation
Terahertz radiation
– also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency[1] (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1 THz = 1012 Hz). Wavelengths of radiation in the terahertz band correspondingly range from 1 mm to 0.1 mm (or 100 μm). Because terahertz radiation begins at a wavelength of one millimeter and proceeds into shorter wavelengths, it is sometimes known as the submillimeter band, and its radiation as submillimeter waves, especially in astronomy. Photon energy in the THz regime is less than the band-gap energy of non-metallic materials and thus THz radiation can penetrate such materials
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W Band
The W band
W band
of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 75 to 110 GHz, wavelength ≈2.7–4 mm. It sits above the U.S. IEEE-designated V band
V band
(40–75 GHz) in frequency, and overlaps the NATO designated M band
M band
(60–100 GHz). The W band is used for satellite communications, millimeter-wave radar research, military radar targeting and tracking applications, and some non-military applications.Contents1 Radar 2 Heat ray 3 Communications 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksRadar[edit] A number of passive millimeter-wave cameras for concealed weapons detection operate at 94 GHz. A frequency around 77  GHz is used for automotive cruise control radar
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J Band (NATO)
The NATO J band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 10 to 20 GHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 3 and 1.5 cm) during the cold war period. Since 1992 frequency allocations, allotment and assignments are in line to NATO Joint Civil/Military Frequency Agreement (NJFA).[1] However, in order to identify military radio spectrum requirements, e.g
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High-frequency Trading
In financial markets, high-frequency trading (HFT) is a type of algorithmic trading characterized by high speeds, high turnover rates, and high order-to-trade ratios that leverages high-frequency financial data and electronic trading tools.[1] While there is no single definition of HFT, among its key attributes are highly sophisticated algorithms, co-location, and very short-term investment horizons.[2] HFT can be viewed as a primary form of algorithmic trading in finance.[3][4][5][6][7] Specifically, it is the use of sophisticated technological tools and computer algorithms to rapidly trade securities.[8][9][10] HFT uses proprietary trading strategies carried out by computers to move in and out of positions in seconds or fractions of a second.[11] Aldridge and Krawciw, 2017 [12] estimate that in 2016 HFT on average initiated 10–40% of trading volume in equities, and 10–15% of volume in foreign exchange and commodities. Intraday, however, proportion of HFT may vary from 0% to 100%
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