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Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
(/ˌhaɪ.əˈrɒnɪməs ˈbɒʃ/;[1] Dutch: [ɦijeːˈroːnimɵz ˈbɔs] ( listen);[2] born Jheronimus van Aken[3] [jeːˈroːnimɵs fɑn ˈaːkə(n)];[4] c. 1450 – 9 August 1516) was a Dutch/ Netherlandish
Netherlandish
draughtsman and painter from Brabant. He is widely considered one of the most notable representatives of Early Netherlandish
Netherlandish
painting school. His work is known for its fantastic illustrations of religious concepts and narratives.[5] Within his lifetime his work was collected in the Netherlands, Austria, and Spain, and widely copied, especially his macabre and nightmarish depictions of hell. Little is known of Bosch's life, though there are some records. He spent most of it in the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, where he was born in his grandfather's house
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Adamites
The Adamites, or Adamians, were adherents of an Early Christian
Early Christian
sect that gathered in North Africa in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries. There were later similar sects in Europe. They wore no clothing during their religious services.Contents1 Ancient Adamites 2 Neo-Adamites 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 SourcesAncient Adamites[edit] The obscure sect, dating probably from the 2nd century, professed to have regained Adam's primeval innocence. Various accounts are given of their origin. Some have thought them to have been an offshoot of the Carpocratian
Carpocratian
Gnostics, who professed a sensual mysticism and a complete emancipation from the moral law. Theodoret (Haer. Fab., I, 6) held this view of them, and identified them with the licentious sects whose practices are described by Clement of Alexandria
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Nijmegen
Nijmegen
Nijmegen
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈnɛimeːɣə(n)] ( listen);[6] Nijmeegs: Nimwegen [ˈnɪmβ̞ɛːxə]), historically anglicized as Nimeguen,[7] is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland
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Verdigris
Verdigris
Verdigris
is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates[2] or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over a period of time. It is usually a basic copper carbonate, but near the sea will be a basic copper chloride.[3] If acetic acid is present at the time of weathering, it may consist of copper(II) acetate.The Statue of Liberty, showing advanced oxidizationContents1 Etymology 2 Manufacture 3 Uses3.1 Pigment4 Chemical properties 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Lead-tin-yellow
Lead-tin-yellow
Lead-tin-yellow
is a yellow pigment, of historical importance in oil painting,[1] also known as the "Yellow of the Old Masters".Contents1 Composition 2 History of use 3 References 4 Further reading 5 See also 6 External linksComposition[edit] Lead-tin-yellow
Lead-tin-yellow
historically occurred in two varieties. The first and more common one, today known as "Type I", was a lead stannate, an oxide of lead and tin with the chemical formula Pb2SnO4. The second, "Type II", was a silicate with the formula Pb(Sn,Si)O3.[2][3] Lead-tin-yellow
Lead-tin-yellow
was produced by heating a powder mixture of lead oxide and tin oxide to about 900 °C. In "Type II" the mixture also contained quartz. Its hue is a rather saturated yellow. The pigment is opaque and lightfast
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Philip II Of Spain
Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal
King of Portugal
(1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England
King of England
and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I
from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" ('"Philip the Prudent'"), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age
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Impasto
Impasto
Impasto
is a technique used in painting, where paint is laid on an area of the surface in very thick layers,[1] usually thick enough that the brush or painting-knife strokes are visible. Paint
Paint
can also be mixed right on the canvas. When dry, impasto provides texture; the paint appears to be coming out of the canvas.Contents1 Origins 2 Mediums 3 Purposes 4 Artists 5 References 6 External linksOrigins[edit] The word impasto is Italian in origin; in which it means "dough" or "mixture"; the verb "impastare" translates to "to knead", or "to paste". Italian usage of "impasto" includes both a painting and a potting technique. According to Webster's New World College Dictionary, the root noun of impasto is pasta, whose primary meaning in Italian is paste. Mediums[edit] Oil paint
Oil paint
is the traditional medium for impasto painting, due to its thick consistency and slow drying time
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Flemish Painting
Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century, gradually becoming distinct from the painting of the rest of the Low Countries, especially the modern Netherlands. In the early period, up to about 1520, the painting of the whole area is (especially in the Anglophone world) typically considered as a whole, as Early Netherlandish painting. This was dominated by the Flemish south, but painters from the north were also important. Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, of which Antwerp became the centre, covers the period up to about 1580 or later, by the end of which the north and south Netherlands had become politically separated. Flemish Baroque painting was especially important in the first half of the 17th century, dominated by Rubens. In theory the term does not refer to modern Flanders but to the County of Flanders and neighbouring areas of the Low Countries such as the Tournaisis and Duchy of Brabant
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Adam
Adam
Adam
(Hebrew: אָדָם‬, Modern ʼAdam, Tiberian ʼĀḏām; Arabic: آدَم‎, translit. ʾĀdam; Greek: Αδάμ, translit. Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
for t
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Eve
Eve
Eve
(/ˈiːv/; Hebrew: חַוָּה‬, Modern Chava, Tiberian Ḥawwāh; Arabic: حَوَّاء‎, translit. Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. According to the creation myth[1] of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman. In Islamic tradition, Eve
Eve
is known as Adam's wife and the first woman although she is not specifically named in the Quran. According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve
Eve
was created by God (Yahweh) by taking her from the rib[2] of Adam, to be Adam's companion. She succumbs to the serpent's temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She shares the fruit with Adam, and as a result the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden
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Last Judgment
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord
Day of the Lord
(Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism. Some Christian denominations consider the Second Coming of Christ
Second Coming of Christ
to be the final and eternal judgment by God
God
of the people in every nation[1] resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels, particularly the Gospel of Matthew. Christian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead
and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has already occurred
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Ochres
Ochre (British English) (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər; from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English[1]) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.[2] It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown
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House Of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Carmine
Carmine
Carmine
(/ˈkɑːrmɪn/ or /ˈkɑːrmaɪn/), also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4,[1] C.I. 75470,[1] or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color. The pigment is produced from some scale insects such as the cochineal scale and certain Porphyrophora species ( Armenian cochineal
Armenian cochineal
and Polish cochineal)
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Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch
Modern Dutch
after 1500, there was no overarching standard language but the dialects were all mutually intelligible
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Azurite
Azurite
Azurite
is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. It is also known as Chessylite after the type locality at Chessy-les-Mines near Lyon, France.[2] The mineral, a carbonate, has been known since ancient times, and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History under the Greek name kuanos (κυανός: "deep blue," root of English cyan) and the Latin name caeruleum.[4] The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear, and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies
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