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Hibiscus
679 speciesSynonyms[1]Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi Bombycodendron Hassk. Brockmania W.Fitzg. Pariti Adans. Wilhelminia Hochr.Hibiscus[2][3] is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are renowned for their large, showy flowers and those species are commonly known simply as "hibiscus", or less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees
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Papaya
The papaya (/pəˈpaɪə/ or US: /pəˈpɑːjə/) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, (/pəˈpɔː/[2]) or pawpaw (/ˈpɔːˌpɔː/[2]) [3] is the plant Carica
Carica
papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica
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Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
(Ancient Greek: Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; c. 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Ancient Greek: Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years
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Althaea Officinalis
Althaea officinalis
Althaea officinalis
(marsh-mallow,[2] marsh mallow (Persian: خطمی، ختمی‎, Arabic: ختمية الطبية، خبيز‎), or common marshmallow) is a perennial species indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today's marshmallow treat.[3]Contents1 Description 2 Uses2.1 Herbal
Herbal
medicine 2.2 Culinary3 Chemistry 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDescription[edit] The stems, which die down in the autumn, are erect, 3 to 4 ft (0.91 to 1.22 m), but can reach 6′6″ (2m),[4] simple, or putting out only a few lateral branches
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Phyllotaxis
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").[1] Phyllotactic spirals form a distinctive class of patterns in nature.Contents1 Leaf
Leaf
arrangement 2 Repeating spiral 3 Determination 4 History 5 Mathematics 6 In art and architecture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Leaf
Leaf
arrangement[edit]Opposite leaf patternWhorled leaf patternTwo different examples of the alternate (spiral) leaf patternThe basic arrangements of leaves on a stem are opposite, or alternate = spiral. Leaves may also be whorled if several leaves arise, or appear to arise, from the same level (at the same node) on a stem. This arrangement is fairly unusual on plants except for those with particularly short internodes
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus
Phaseolus
have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Fruit
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries
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Capsule (fruit)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry rarely fleshy, dehiscent fruit produced by many species of Angiosperms (flowering plants).[1][2]Contents1 Origins and structure 2 Dehiscence 3 Specialised capsules 4 Nuts 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyOrigins and structure[edit] The capsule (Latin: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary.[2] A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels. In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as uni-locular (unilocular), bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa. Dehiscence[edit] Main article: Dehiscence (botany) In most cases the capsule is dehiscent, i.e
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Haiti
Coordinates: 19°00′N 72°25′W / 19.000°N 72.417°W / 19.000; -72.417 Republic
Republic
of HaitiRépublique d'Haïti  (French) Repiblik Ayiti  (Haitian Creole)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" (French)[1] "Libète, Egalite, Fratènite"  (Haitian Creole) "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" Motto on traditional coat of arms: "L'union fait la force" (French) "Inite se fòs"  (Haitian Creole)[2] "Union makes strength"Anthem: La Dessalinienne  (French) Desalinyèn&
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Herbaceous Plant
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.[1] Herbaceous plants may be annuals, biennials or perennials,[2] and include both forbs and graminoids. Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed.[3] Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots, a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems, such as bulbs, corms, stolons, rhizomes and tubers
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Solomon Islands
Coordinates: 8°S 159°E / 8°S 159°E / -8; 159Solomon Islands Flag Coat of arms Motto: "To Lead is to Serve"Anthem: "God Save Our Solomon Islands"[1][2] Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"Capitaland largest cityHoniara9°28′S 159°49′E / 9.467°S 159.817°E / -9.467; 159.817Official languagesEnglishEthnic groups (1999)94.5% Melanesian3.0% Polynesian1.2% Micronesian1.1% Others0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym(s)Solomon IslanderGovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• Monarch Elizabeth II• Governor-General David Vunagi• Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare LegislatureNational ParliamentIndependence• from the United Kingdom 7 July 1978 Area • Total28,400 km2 (11,000 sq mi) (139th)• Water (%)3.2%Population• 2016 estimate599,419[3] (162nd)• Dens
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Niue
Niue
Niue
(/ˈnjuːeɪ/ NEW-ay; Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi)[7] and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016.[4] The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia".[8] Niue
Niue
is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to Alofi
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South Korea
Coordinates: 36°N 128°E / 36°N 128°E / 36; 128 Republic
Republic
of Korea 대한민국 Daehan MingukFlagEmblemMotto: "홍익인간 (弘益人間)" (Korean) (de facto) "Benefit broadly in the human world / Devotion to the Welfare of Humanity"[1]Anthem:  Aegukga
Aegukga
"애국가 (愛國歌)" (Korean) (de facto) "Patriotic Song"Government Emblem대한민국정부 상징문양 (Korean) Government Emblem of South KoreaArea controlled by South Korea
Korea
is shown in dark green; South Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Seoul 37°33′N 126°58′E / 37.550°N 126.967°E / 37.550; 126.967Official languages Korean Korean Sign Language[2]Official script HangulEthnic groups Predominately Korean
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Hindu
Hindus
Hindus
(Hindustani: [ˈɦɪndu] (listen)) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.[1][2] Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.[3][4] The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the
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