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Hiberno-English
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English[2] is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland
Ireland
(including both the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and Northern Ireland).[3] English was brought to Ireland
Ireland
as a result of the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
of the late 12th century. Initially, it was mainly spoken in an area known as the Pale around Dublin, with mostly Irish spoken throughout the rest of the country
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Conservative (linguistics)
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change. It is the opposite of innovative or advanced forms or varieties, which have undergone relatively larger or more recent changes. A conservative linguistic form, such as a word, is one that remains closer to an older form from which it evolved, relative to cognate forms from the same source. For example, the Spanish word caro and the French word cher both evolved from the Latin
Latin
word cārum. The Spanish word, which is more similar to the common ancestor, is more conservative than its French cognate.[1] A language or language variety is said to be conservative if it has fewer innovations (in other words, more conservative forms) than related varieties do
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Question
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression. The information requested is provided in the form of an answer. Questions have developed a range of uses that go beyond the simple eliciting of information from another party. Rhetorical questions, for example, are used to make a point, and are not expected to be answered. Many languages have special grammatical forms for questions (for example, in the English sentence "Are you happy?", the inversion of the subject you and the verb are shows it to be a question rather than a statement)
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Dialect
The term dialect (from Latin
Latin
dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and λέγω, légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum
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High Rising Terminal
The high rising terminal (HRT), also known as upspeak, uptalk, rising inflection, moronic interrogative, or high rising intonation (HRI), is a feature of some variants of English where declarative sentence clauses end with a rising-pitch intonation, until the end of the sentence where a falling-pitch is applied. Empirically, one report proposes that HRT in American English
American English
and
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Declarative Sentence
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a sentence is a unit of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and exclamation marks
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Topicalization
Topicalization is a mechanism of syntax that establishes an expression as the sentence or clause topic; in English, by having it appear at the front of the sentence or clause (as opposed to in a canonical position further to the right). Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition). Topicalization is also used as a constituency test; an expression that can be topicalized is deemed a constituent.[1] The topicalization of arguments in English is rare, whereas circumstantial adjuncts are often topicalized. Most languages allow topicalization, and in some languages, topicalization occurs much more frequently and/or in a much less marked manner than in English
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Tudor Period
The Tudor period
Tudor period
is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period
Elizabethan period
during the reign of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
until 1603. The Tudor period
Tudor period
coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor
House of Tudor
in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457–1509)
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Forth And Bargy Dialect
The term dialect (from Latin
Latin
dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and λέγω, légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum
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Scots Language
In the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak Scots.[3] Language
Language
familyIndo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicIngvaeonicAnglo-FrisianAnglicScotsEarly formsOld EnglishMiddle EnglishEarly ScotsMiddle ScotsDialectsCentral Southern Ulster Northern InsularWriting systemLatinOfficial statusOfficial language inNoneClassified as a "traditional language" by the Scottish Government. Classified as a "regional or minority language" under the
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Plantations Of Ireland
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown
English crown
and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain. There had already been smaller-scale immigration to Ireland as far back as the 12th century, which had resulted in a distinct ethnicity in Ireland known as the Old English, or Hiberno-Normans. Unofficial plantations carried out privately by landlords also took place, such as those in County Antrim and County Down. The 16th-century plantations were established through large areas of the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman
Hiberno-Norman
dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Leinster. The Crown granted these lands to colonists ("planters") from England. This process began during the reign of Henry VIII and continued under Mary I and Elizabeth I
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Ulster Irish
Ulster
Ulster
Irish is the variety of Irish spoken in the province of Ulster. It "occupies a central position in the Gaelic world made up of Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man".[1] Ulster
Ulster
Irish thus has more in common with Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx. Within Ulster
Ulster
there have historically been two main sub-dialects: West Ulster
Ulster
and East Ulster. The Western dialect is spoken in County Donegal
County Donegal
and once was in parts of neighbouring counties, hence the name Donegal Irish
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American And British English Pronunciation Differences
Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided intodifferences in accent (i.e. phoneme inventory and realisation). See differences between General American and Received Pronunciation for the standard accents in the United States and Britain (although General American's status as the official standard accent of the United States is contested); for information about other accents see regional accents of English speakers. differences in the pronunciation of individual words in the lexicon (i.e. phoneme distribution)
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