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Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
is a subfamily of rodents in the family Heteromyidae,[2] commonly known as spiny pocket mice. It contains a single extant genus, Heteromys, as well as the extinct genera Diprionomys and Metaliomys.[1] Heteromys
Heteromys
was recently enlarged by inclusion of the members of formerly recognized heteromyine genus Liomys, which was found to be paraphyletic.[3] Taxonomy[edit] Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
is the sister group of Perognathinae; the two are estimated to have split about 22-23 million years (Ma) ago. The most recent common ancestor of extant heteromyines is thought to have lived 12-15 Ma ago; the basal species in the subfamily is H. salvini.[3] References[edit] Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Heteromyinae^ a b " Heteromyinae
Heteromyinae
in the Paleobiology Database"
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Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest
Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest
Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest
(March 6, 1784 – June 4, 1838) was a French zoologist and author. He was the son of Nicolas Desmarest
Nicolas Desmarest
and father of Eugène Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest.[1] Desmarest was a disciple of Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
and Alexandre Brongniart, and in 1815, he succeeded Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille
to the professorship of zoology at the École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Mammalia
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray, FRS (12 February 1800 – 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of zoologist George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray (1766–1828). Gray was Keeper of Zoology
Zoology
at the British Museum
British Museum
in London from 1840 until Christmas 1874, before the Natural History
Natural History
holdings were split off to the Natural History
Natural History
Museum. He published several catalogues of the museum collections that included comprehensive discussions of animal groups as well as descriptions of new species
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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Chordata
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Metaliomys
Metaliomys is an extinct genus of Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
that existed in the United States
United States
during the Late Miocene period. The only species is Metaliomys sevierensis.[1] References[edit]^ William W. Korth & Donald D. De Blieux (2010). "Rodents and Lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (Late Miocene) of Utah". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (1): 226–235. doi:10.1080/02724630903412448. Taxon identifiersWd: Q6822809 EoL: 20607542 IRMNG: 1475084This article about a prehistoric rodent is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
article is a stub
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Sister Group
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.[1] The expression is most easily illustrated by a cladogram: A, B, and C each represent a taxon:           A  B           CThe sister group to A is B; conversely, the sister group to B is A. Groups A and B, together with all other descendants of their most recent common ancestor, form the clade AB. The sister group to clade AB is C. The whole clade ABC is itself a subtree of a larger tree, which offers yet more sister group branches that are related but farther removed from the leaf nodes, such as A, B, and C. In cladistic standards, A, B, and C may represent specimens, species, taxon-groups, etc
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated,[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world
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Wikispecies
Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public
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Fossilworks
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query, download, and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. History[edit] Fossilworks was created in 2013 by John Alroy and is housed at Macquarie University. It includes many analysis and data visualization tools formerly included in the Paleobiology Database.[1] References[edit]^ "Frequently asked questions". Fossilworks. Retrieved 21 May 2014. External links[edit]"Fossilworks"
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