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Heteromeyenia Macouni
Heteromeyenia macouni A. H. Mackay Racekiela ryderi is a species of freshwater demosponge in the family Spongillidae.[1] It was first described by Edward Potts in 1882.[2] It was collected on Sable Island
Sable Island
in 1899 by John Macoun, a biologist with the Geological Survey of Canada, and given the name Heteromeyenia macouni by A.H. Mackay in 1900,[3] is now considered to be Racekiela ryderi.[4] References[edit]^ a b van Soest, R. (2010). Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J, eds. " Racekiela ryderi (Potts, 1882)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ Potts, E. (1882). "Three more Fresh-water Sponges". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1: 12–14. Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ MacKay, A.H
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet
Internet
using web services. The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data. The mission of the Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
information Facility (GBIF) is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development
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Fauna Europaea
Fauna Europaea is a database of the scientific names and distribution of all living multicellular European land and fresh-water animals.[1] Its construction was initially funded by the European Union (2000–2004). The project is co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam. References[edit]^ de Jong, Y; Verbeek, M; Michelsen, V; Bjørn Pde, P; Los, W; Steeman, F; Bailly, N; Basire, C; Chylarecki, P; Stloukal, E; Hagedorn, G; Wetzel, FT; Glöckler, F; Kroupa, A; Korb, G; Hoffmann, A; Häuser, C; Kohlbecker, A; Müller, A; Güntsch, A; Stoev, P; Penev, L (2014). " Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web". Biodivers Data J (2): e4034. doi:10.3897/BDJ.2.e4034. PMC 4206781 
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life
Life
(EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world.[2] It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text.[3] In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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Wikidata
Wikidata
Wikidata
is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as,[4][5] and by anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase.[6]Contents1 Concepts 2 Development history2.1 Phase 1 2.2 Phase 2 2.3 Phase 33 Reception 4 Logo 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksConcepts[edit]ScreenshotsThree statements from Wikidata's item on the planet Mars
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World Register Of Marine Species
The World Register of Marine Species
World Register of Marine Species
(WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.[1]Contents1 Contents 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksContents[edit] The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialists on each group of organism. These taxonomists control the quality of the information, which is gathered from malacological journals and several regional and taxon-specific databases. WoRMS maintains valid names of all marine organisms, but also provides information on synonyms and invalid names. It will be an ongoing task to maintain the registry, as new species are constantly being discovered and described by scientists
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Geological Survey Of Canada
The Geological Survey of Canada
Geological Survey of Canada
(GSC; French: Commission géologique du Canada (CGC)) is a Canadian federal government agency responsible for performing geological surveys of the country, developing Canada's natural resources and protecting the environment. A branch of the Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada, the GSC is the country's oldest scientific agency and was one of its first government organizations.Contents1 History 2 Programs and activities2.1 Seismograph Network 2.2 Geomagnetic monitoring3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2011)In September 1841, the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
legislature passed a resolution that authorized the sum of £1,500 sterling be granted to the government for the estimated expense of performing a geological survey of the province
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John Macoun
John Macoun (17 April 1831 – 18 June 1920) was an Northern Irish-born Canadian naturalist.Contents1 Early life 2 Western explorations 3 Later career 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Macoun was born in Magheralin, County Down, Ireland in 1831, the third child of James Macoun and Anne Jane Nevin. In 1850, the worsening economic situation in Ireland led his family to emigrate to Canada, where he settled in Seymour Township, Ontario and began farming. Unsatisfied as a farmer, he became a school teacher in 1856. It was during this time that he developed a nearly obsessive interest in botany. Although his formal education was slight, his knowledge and dedication to field work became sufficiently advanced that he gained the notice and respect of several professional botanists
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Demosponge
Heteroscleromorpha Keratosa Verongimorpha †TakakkawiaDemospongiae is the most diverse class in the phylum Porifera. They include 90% of all species of sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide (World Porifera
Porifera
Database).[1] They are predominantly leuconoid in structure. Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica, or both. Where spicules of silica are present, they have a different shape from those in the otherwise similar glass sponges.[2] The many diverse orders in this class include all of the large sponges. Most are marine dwellers, but one order (Spongillida) live in freshwater environments
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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