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Heterodox Economics
Heterodox economics
Heterodox economics
refers to schools of economic thought or methodologies that are outside "mainstream economics", often represented by expositors as contrasting with or going beyond neoclassical economics.[1][2] "Heterodox economics" is an umbrella term used to cover various approaches, schools, or traditions
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Demand
In economics, demand is the quantity of a commodity or a service that people are willing or able to buy at a certain price, per unit of time.[1] The relationship between price and quantity demanded is also known as demand curve. Preferences and choices, which underlie demand, can be represented as functions of cost, benefit, odds and other variables. Determinants of (Factors affecting) demand Innumerable factors and circumstances could affect a buyer's willingness or ability to buy a good. Some of the common factors are:Good's own price: The basic demand relationship is between potential prices of a good and the quantities that would be purchased at those prices. Generally the relationship is negative meaning that an increase in price will induce a decrease in the quantity demanded. This negative relationship is embodied in the downward slope of the consumer demand curve. The assumption of a negative relationship is reasonable and intuitive
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Welfare Economics
Welfare
Welfare
economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.[1] A typical methodology begins with the derivation (or assumption) of a social welfare function, which can then be used to rank economically feasible allocations of resources in terms of the social welfare they entail. Such functions typically include measures of economic efficiency and equity, though more recent attempts to quantify social welfare have included a broader range of measures including economic freedom (as in the capability approach). The field of welfare economics is associated with two fundamental theorems
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Game Theory
Game theory
Game theory
is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as in logic and computer science.[1] Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics
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Education Economics
Education
Education
economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, and the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies. From early works on the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the field of the economics of education has grown rapidly to cover virtually all areas with linkages to education.Contents1
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Ecological Economics
Ecological economics
Ecological economics
(also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.[1] By treating the economy as a subsystem of Earth's larger ecosystem, and by emphasizing the preservation of natural capital, the field of ecological economics is differentiated from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment.[2] One survey of
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Economics Of Digitization
The economics of digitization is the field of economics that studies how digitization affects markets and how digital data can be used to study economics. Digitization
Digitization
is the process by which technology lowers the costs of storing, sharing, and analyzing data. This process has changed how consumers behave, how industrial activity is organized, and how governments operate. The economics of digitization exists as a distinct field of economics for two reasons. First, new economic models are needed because many traditional assumptions about information no longer holds in a digitized world. Second, the new types of data generated by digitization require new methods to analyze. Research in the economics of digitization touches on several fields of economics including industrial organization, labor economics, and intellectual property
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Development Economics
Development economics
Development economics
is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels.[1] Developmen
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Demographic Economics
Demographic economics
Demographic economics
or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1][2] Aspects of the subject includemarriage and fertility[1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] the family[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] divorce[18][19][20] morbidity[21] and life expectancy/mortality[22][23][24] dependency ratios[1][3][25][26][27] migration[28][29][30] population growth[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] population size[39][40][41] public policy[1][42][42][43][44][45][46][
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Computational Economics
Computational economics
Computational economics
is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.[1] This subject encompasses computational modeling of economic systems, whether agent-based,[2] general-equilibrium,[3] macroeconomic,[4] or rational-expectations,[5] computational econometrics and statistics,[6] computational finance, computational tools for the design of automated internet markets, programming tools specifically designed for computational economics, and pedagogical tools for the teaching of computational economics
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Business Economics
Business
Business
economics is a field in applied economics which uses economic theory and quantitative methods to analyze business enterprises and the factors contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the relationships of firms with labour, capital and product markets.[1] A professional focus of the journal Business
Business
Economics
Economics
has been expressed as providing "practical information for people who apply economics in their jobs."[2]Contents1 Subject matter 2 Ambiguity in the use of term 3 Interpretations from various universities 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Journals 7 External linksSubject matter[edit] Business
Business
economics is concerned with economic issues and problems related to business organization, management, and strategy
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Economic Geography
Economic geography
Economic geography
is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world
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Health Economics
Health
Health
economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare
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Market (economics)
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods
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Post-scarcity Economy
Post-scarcity is an economic theory in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely.[1][2] Post-scarcity is not generally taken to mean that scarcity has been eliminated for all consumer goods and services; instead, it is often taken to mean that all people can easily have their basic survival needs met along with some significant proportion of their desires for goods and services,[3] with writers on the topic often emphasizing that certain commodities are likely to remain scarce in a post-scarcity society.[4][5][6][7] In the paper "The Post- Scarcity
Scarcity
World of 2050-2075",[8] authors assert that we are currently living an age of scarcity resulting from negligent behavior (as regards the future) of the 19th and 20th centuries
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