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Hershey–Chase Experiment
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952[1] by Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
and Martha Chase
Martha Chase
that helped to confirm that DNA
DNA
is genetic material. While DNA
DNA
had been known to biologists since 1869,[2] many scientists still assumed at the time that proteins carried the information for inheritance because DNA
DNA
appeared simpler than proteins. In their experiments, Hershey and Chase showed that when bacteriophages, which are composed of DNA
DNA
and protein, infect bacteria, their DNA
DNA
enters the host bacterial cell, but most of their protein does not
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Experiment
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time.[1] Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g
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Codons
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material ( DNA
DNA
or m RNA
RNA
sequences) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), using transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the m RNA
RNA
three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.[1] The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions,[2] a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA
RNA
codon table)
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RNA Virus
An RNA
RNA
virus is a virus that has RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.[1] This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA
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Viral Entry
Viral entry
Viral entry
is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle, as the virus comes into contact with the host cell and introduces viral material into the cell. The major steps involved in viral entry are shown below.[1] Despite the variation among viruses, there are several shared generalities concerning viral entry.Contents1 Reducing cellular proximity1.1 Overview 1.2 Entry via Membrane Fusion 1.3 Entry via Endocytosis 1.4 Entry via Genetic Injection2 Aftermath 3 ReferencesReducing cellular proximity[edit] A virus floating around an enclosed space with possible host cells faces a large hurdle, the thermodynamics of diffusion. Because neutrally charged objects do not naturally clump around each other, the virus must find a way to move even near a host cell. It does this by attachment -- or adsorption --- onto a susceptible cell; a cell which holds a receptor that the virus can bind to
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Double Helix
In molecular biology, the term double helix[1] refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA. The double helical structure of a nucleic acid complex arises as a consequence of its secondary structure, and is a fundamental component in determining its tertiary structure. The term entered popular culture with the publication in 1968 of The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA,by James Watson The DNA
DNA
double helix polymer of nucleic acid, held together by nucleotides which base pair together.[2] In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure found in nature, the double helix is right-handed with about 10–10.5 base pairs per turn.[3] The double helix structure of DNA
DNA
contains a major groove and minor groove
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DNA Replication
In molecular biology, DNA
DNA
replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
DNA
from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA
DNA
essential. DNA
DNA
is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated
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X-ray Crystallography
X-ray
X-ray
crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays
X-rays
to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder, and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules— X-ray
X-ray
crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields
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Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004)[3] was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar. He is best known for his work at King's College London
King's College London
on the structure of DNA. Wilkins' work on DNA
DNA
falls into two distinct phases. The first was in 1948–50, when his initial studies produced the first clear X-ray images of DNA, which he presented at a conference in Naples in 1951 attended by James Watson. During the second phase, 1951–52, Wilkins produced clear "B form" "X" shaped images from squid sperm, images he sent to James Watson
James Watson
and Francis Crick, causing Watson to write "Wilkins..
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George Gamow
George Gamow
George Gamow
(March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He was an early advocate and developer of Lemaître's Big Bang
Big Bang
theory. He discovered a theoretical explanation of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, and worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis and Big Bang
Big Bang
nucleosynthesis (which he collectively called nucleocosmogenesis), and molecular genetics. In his middle and late career, Gamow focused more on teaching and wrote popular books on science, including One Two Three... Infinity and the Mr Tompkins ... series of books (1939–1967)
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Genetic Code
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material ( DNA
DNA
or m RNA
RNA
sequences) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), using transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the m RNA
RNA
three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.[1] The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions,[2] a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA
RNA
codon table)
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Gene Expression
Gene
Gene
expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA
RNA
(snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA
RNA
splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene
Gene
regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism
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Enzyme
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
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Protein Synthesis
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Transcription (genetics)
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase. Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA
RNA
polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA
RNA
polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA
DNA
helix
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RNA Splicing
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA). After splicing, introns are removed and exons are joined together (ligated). For nuclear-encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus either during or immediately after transcription. For those eukaryotic genes that contain introns, splicing is usually required in order to create an mRNA molecule that can be translated into protein. For many eukaryotic introns, splicing is carried out in a series of reactions which are catalyzed by the spliceosome, a complex of snRNPs
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