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Hermannsdenkmal
The Hermannsdenkmal
Hermannsdenkmal
(German for "Hermann Monument") is a monument located southwest of Detmold
Detmold
in the district of Lippe, (North Rhine-Westphalia) in Germany. It stands on the densely forested Grotenburg (de), a hill (elevation 386 m) in the Teutoburger Wald (Teutoburg Forest) range. The monument is located inside the remains of a circular rampart. The hill is sometimes also called the Teutberg or Teut for short. The monument commemorates the Cherusci
Cherusci
war chief Arminius
Arminius
(in German, Hermann) and the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Teutoburg Forest
in which the Germanic warriors under Arminius
Arminius
defeated three Roman legions under Varus in 9 AD
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Thaler
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. Its name lives on in the many currencies called dollar and, until recently, also in the Slovenian tolar. The name "thaler" was used as an abbreviation of "Joachimsthaler", a coin type from the town of Joachimsthal
Joachimsthal
in the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
(now the Czech Republic), where there were silver mines and the first such coins were minted in 1518. This original Bohemian thaler carried a lion, from the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bohemia, on its reverse side. Etymologically, Thal (modern: Tal) is German for "valley" – a "thaler" is a person or a thing "from the valley"
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Napoleon
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Kingdom Of France
La Parisienne (1830–1848) "The Parisian"The Kingdom of France
France
in 1789.Capital Paris
Paris
(987–1682) Versailles (1682–1789)
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Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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Deutscher Bund
The German Confederation
Confederation
(German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.[1] Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[2] The Confederation
Confederation
collapsed due to the rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, warfare in the several European revolutions of 1848, the 1848–1849 German revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention
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Leopold II, Prince Of Lippe
Leopold II of Lippe (Paul Alexander Leopold; 6 November 1796 – 1 January 1851) was the sovereign of the Principality of Lippe. He succeeded to the throne in 1802, and in 1820 he assumed control of the government from his mother who had been acting as regent due to his youth at accession.Contents1 Biography 2 Marriage and children 3 Ancestry 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Leopold II was born in Detmold, the eldest child of Leopold I, the reigning prince of Lippe and his consort Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg
Anhalt-Bernburg
(1769–1820). He succeeded as Prince of Lippe
Prince of Lippe
on his father's death on 5 November 1802
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Wood Pasture
Silvopasture
Silvopasture
(Latin, silva forest) or wood pasture is the practice of combining woodland (trees), now also known as forestry, and the grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way. Advantages of a properly managed silvopasture operation are enhanced soil protection and increased long-term income due to the simultaneous production of trees and grazing animals. The trees are managed for high-value sawlogs, brushwood, foliage, foder and, at the same time, provide shade and shelter for livestock and some forage, reducing stress and sometimes increasing forage production.[1] Perhaps the oldest agroforestry system used in the temperate regions of the world, silvopastoral systems are characterized by integrating trees with forage and livestock production. Such systems have the potential to increase agricultural production in the long term
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Ludwig I
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.Contents1 Crown prince 2 Reign 3 Cultural legacy 4 Private life and issue 5 Titles, styles and honours5.1 Titles and styles 5.2 Honours6 Ancestry 7 See also 8 Sources 9 External linksCrown prince[edit] Born in the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts
Hôtel des Deux-Ponts
in Strasbourg, he was the son of Count Palatine Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken (later Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria) by his first wife Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. At the time of his birth, his father was an officer in the French army stationed at Strasbourg
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Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
(13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings.[1] His most famous buildings are found in and around Berlin.Contents1 Biography 2 Style 3 Paintings and drawings 4 Buildings 5 See also 6 References and sources 7 External linksBiography[edit] Franz Ludwig Catel
Franz Ludwig Catel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
in NaplesA stamp with Schinkel's Altes MuseumSchinkel was born in Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg. When he was six, his father died in the disastrous Neuruppin
Neuruppin
fire of 1787
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Christian Daniel Rauch
Christian Daniel Rauch
Christian Daniel Rauch
(2 January 1777 – 3 December 1857) was a German sculptor. He founded the Berlin school of sculpture, and was the foremost German sculptor of the 19th century.Contents1 Life 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]Bust of Christian Daniel Rauch
Christian Daniel Rauch
by David d'Angers
David d'Angers
(1834)Rauch was born at Arolsen
Arolsen
in the Principality of Waldeck in the Holy Roman Empire. His father was employed at the court of Prince Frederick II of Hesse, and in 1790 the lad was apprenticed to the court sculptor of Arolsen, Friedrich Valentin. In 1795, he became assistant to Johann Christian Ruhl, the court sculptor of Kassel. After the death of his father in 1796 and his older brother in 1797, he moved to Berlin where he was appointed groom of the chamber in the king's household
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Hanover
Hanover
Hanover
or Hannover
Hannover
(/ˈhænoʊvər, -nə-/; German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ] ( listen)), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
(later described as the Elector of Hanover)
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Dissolution Of The Holy Roman Empire
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when Emperor Francis II
Emperor Francis II
abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Although the abdication was considered legal, the dissolution of the imperial bonds was not and several states refused to recognise the end of the empire at the time.[1] External links[edit] Abdication
Abdication
of Francis II on WikisourceNotes[edit]^ Gagliardo 1980, p. 281.Sources[edit]Burgdorf, Wolfgang (2012). "'Once we were Trojans!' Contemporary Reactions to the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation". In Evans, Robert J.; Wilson, Peter H. The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806: A European Perspective. Leiden: Brill. pp. 51–76.  Forrest, Alan; Wilson, Peter H., eds. (2009)
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German Revolution Of 1848
The German revolutions of 1848–49
German revolutions of 1848–49
(German: Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (German: Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
that broke out in many European countries. They were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire. The revolutions, which stressed pan-Germanism, demonstrated popular discontent with the traditional, largely autocratic political structure of the thirty-nine independent states of the Confederation that inherited the German territory of the former Holy Roman Empire. The middle-class elements were committed to liberal principles, while the working class sought radical improvements to their working and living conditions
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Austro-Prussian War
Prussian-led German Confederation
German Confederation
states Prussia Brunswick Mecklenburg-Schwerin Saxe-Coburg & Gotha Saxe-Altenburg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Anhalt Schwarzburg Waldeck Lippe Saxe-Lauenburg Lübeck Bremen Hamburg Italy Austrian-led German Confederation
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