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Herbert Eugene Ives
Herbert Eugene Ives (July 21, 1882 – November 13, 1953) was a scientist and engineer who headed the development of facsimile and television systems at AT&T in the first half of the twentieth century.[1] He is best known for the 1938 Ives–Stilwell experiment, which provided direct confirmation of special relativity's time dilation,[2] although Ives himself did not accept special relativity, and argued instead for an alternative interpretation of the experimental results.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 Awards and honors 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Ives was born on July 21, 1882 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
to Frederic Eugene Ives
Frederic Eugene Ives
and Mary Olmstead. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania and the Johns Hopkins University, where he graduated in 1908
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Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872[7] and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016[update].[5] Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware
Delaware
Valley, located along the lower Delaware
Delaware
and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis
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Harry Truman
Harry S. Truman[b] (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. A World War I
World War I
veteran, he assumed the presidency during the waning months of World War II
World War II
and the beginning of the Cold War. He is known for implementing the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, for the establishment of the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
and NATO against Soviet and Chinese Communism, and for intervening in the Korean War. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them
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Patent
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process.[1]:17 Patents are a form of intellectual property. The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness
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Hendrik Lorentz
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Lorentz
(18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect
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Lorentz Ether Theory
What is now often called Lorentz ether theory
Lorentz ether theory
(LET) has its roots in Hendrik Lorentz's "theory of electrons", which was the final point in the development of the classical aether theories at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Lorentz's initial theory was created between 1892 and 1895 and was based on a completely motionless aether. It explained the failure of the negative aether drift experiments to first order in v/c by introducing an auxiliary variable called "local time" for connecting systems at rest and in motion in the aether. In addition, the negative result of the Michelson–Morley experiment
Michelson–Morley experiment
led to the introduction of the hypothesis of length contraction in 1892
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Theory Of Relativity
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.[1] Special relativity
Special relativity
applies to elementary particles and their interactions, describing all their physical phenomena except gravity. General relativity
General relativity
explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature.[2] It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy.[3] The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.[3][4][5] It introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time, relativity of simultaneity, kinematic and gravitational time dilation, and length contraction
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Howard Percy Robertson
Howard Percy "Bob" Robertson (January 27, 1903 – August 26, 1961) was an American mathematician and physicist known for contributions related to physical cosmology and the uncertainty principle. He was Professor of Mathematical Physics at the California Institute of Technology and Princeton University. Robertson made important contributions to the mathematics of quantum mechanics, general relativity and differential geometry. Applying relativity to cosmology, he developed the concept of an expanding universe, and predicted the redshift. His name is most often associated with the Poynting–Robertson effect, the process by which solar radiation causes a dust mote orbiting a star to lose angular momentum, which he also described in terms of general relativity. During World War II, Robertson served with the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)
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Special Relativity
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time
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American Numismatic Society
The American Numismatic
Numismatic
Society (ANS) is a New York City-based organization dedicated to the study of coins and medals.Contents1 Introduction1.1 Location2 Collection2.1 Online Resources 2.2 Exhibitions3 Library 4 Publications 5 Awards 6 Graduate Seminar 7 History 8 Notable members 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksIntroduction[edit] The American Numismatic
Numismatic
Society is an organization dedicated to the study of coins, currency, medals, tokens, and related objects from all cultures, past and present. The Society's headquarters in New York City houses the foremost research collection and library specialized in numismatics in the United States
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Franklin Institute
The Franklin Institute Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
Science MuseumU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesFranklin InstituteShow map of PhiladelphiaShow map of PennsylvaniaShow map of the USLocation 222 N 20th St, Philadelphia, PACoordinates 39°57′29″N 75°10′25″W / 39.95806°N 75.17361°W / 39.95806; -75.17361Coordinates: 39°57′29″N 75°10′25″W / 39.95806°N 75.17361°W / 39.95806; -75.17361Area 4.4 acres (1.8 ha)Built 1931Architect Windrim, John Torrey; Day & ZimmermannArchitectural style Classical RevivalNRHP reference # 85000039[1]Added to NRHP January 3, 1985The Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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Optical Society Of America
Ian Walmsley [1] Eric Mazur
Eric Mazur
(Past- President) [2] Elizabeth A. Rogan (CEO)Revenue$40,975,063[3]Endowment $74,991,615Employees150Website www.osa.org The Optical Society
The Optical Society
(originally established as The Optical Society
The Optical Society
of America, OSA) is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the study of light—optics and photonics—in theory and application, by means of publishing, organizing conferences and exhibitions, partnership with industry, and education
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Blackout (wartime)
A blackout during war, or in preparation for an expected war, is the practice of collectively minimizing outdoor light, including upwardly directed (or reflected) light. This was done in the 20th century to prevent crews of enemy aircraft from being able to identify their targets by sight, for example during the London Blitz
London Blitz
of 1940. In coastal regions a shore-side blackout of city lights also helped protect ships from being seen in silhouette against the shore by enemy submarines farther out at sea. In actual warfare, according to M. R. D. Foot, blackouts do not impair navigation by bombers because navigators focused more on reflected bodies of water, railroad tracks, or large highways
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Lenticular Printing
Lenticular printing
Lenticular printing
is a technology in which lenticular lenses (a technology that is also used for 3D displays) are used to produce printed images with an illusion of depth, or the ability to change or move as the image is viewed from different angles. Examples of lenticular printing include flip and animation effects such as winking eyes, and modern advertising graphics that change their message depending on the viewing angle. Colloquial terms for lenticular prints include "flickers", "winkies", "wiggle pictures" and "tilt cards". Also the trademarks Vari-Vue and Magic Motion are often used for lenticular pictures, without regard to the actual manufacturer
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Fiber-optic Communication
Fiber-optic communication
Fiber-optic communication
is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.[1] Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber
Optical fiber
is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet
Internet
communication, and cable television signals
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History Of Television
The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Individuals and corporations competed in various parts of the world to deliver a device that superseded previous technology
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