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Heqin
Heqin, also known as marriage alliance, refers to the historical practice of Chinese emperors marrying princesses—usually members of minor branches of the royal family—to rulers of neighboring states.[1] It was often adopted as an appeasement strategy with an enemy state that was too powerful to defeat on the battlefield. The policy was not always effective. It implied an equal diplomatic status between the Chinese emperor
Chinese emperor
and the foreign ruler. As a result, it was controversial and had many critics.[1] Lou Jing (Chinese: 娄敬, later granted the royal surname Liu), the architect of the policy, proposed granting the eldest daughter of Emperor Gaozu of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han
to the Modu Chanyu
Modu Chanyu
of the Xiongnu
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Juqu Mujian
Juqu Mujian (Chinese: 沮渠牧犍; before 420 – 447), named Juqu Maoqian (沮渠茂虔) in some sources, formally Prince Ai of Hexi (河西哀王), was a king of the Xiongnu state Northern Liang—with most Chinese historians considering him the last king, although with some considering his brothers Juqu Wuhui and Juqu Anzhou to be kings of the state as well. By the time that Juqu Mujian succeeded his father Juqu Mengxun (Prince Wuxuan) in 433, Northern Liang appeared to be stronger than ever, yet was under the shadow of the much stronger state Northern Wei, to which Northern Liang was nominally a vassal. In 439, Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei launched a major campaign against Northern Liang and captured both his capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu) and Juqu Mujian himself
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Fu Deng
Fu Deng (Chinese: 苻登; 343–394) was an emperor of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin. He assumed the throne in 386 after the deaths of Fu Jiān (Emperor Xuanzhao) and Fu Jiān's son Fu Pi (Emperor Aiping), even though he was only a distant relative of theirs, as by that time Former Qin's territory had largely been reduced to the territory under his control. He battled the Later Qin emperor Yao Chang for years in a stalemate that neither could conclusively prevail, but in 394, he made a major attack on Later Qin after Yao Chang's death, seriously underestimating Yao Chang's son and successor Yao Xing, who captured and executed him
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Qifu Gangui
Qifu Gangui or Qifu Qiangui[1] (Chinese: 乞伏乾歸; died 412), formally Prince Wuyuan of Henan (河南武元王), was a prince of the Xianbei state Western Qin. He was a brother of the founding prince, Qifu Guoren (Prince Xuanlie), who became prince after Qifu Guoren's death in 388 because Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府) was considered too young for leadership. He subsequently expanded the state's power and influence, but only to an extent, and in 400 after military losses to Later Qin, his state was annexed by Later Qin and he himself became a Later Qin general. However, after Later Qin was weakened by defeats at the hands of its rebel general Liu Bobo's Xia state, Qifu Gangui redeclared independence in 409, but ruled only three more years before he was killed by Qifu Gongfu in a coup
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Feng Ba
Feng Ba (Chinese: 馮跋; died 430), courtesy name Wenqi (文起), nickname Qizhifa (乞直伐), formally Emperor
Emperor
Wencheng of (Northern) Yan ((北)燕文成帝), was an emperor (but using the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang)) of the Chinese state Northern Yan. He became emperor after Gao Yun ( Emperor
Emperor
Huiyi), whom he supported in a 407 coup that overthrew Murong Xi of Later Yan, was assassinated in 409. During his reign, Northern Yan
Northern Yan
largely maintained its territorial integrity but made no headway against the much stronger rival Northern Wei
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Yao Xing
Yao Xing (Chinese: 姚興; 366–416), courtesy name Zilüe (子略), formally Emperor Wenhuan of (Later) Qin ((後)秦文桓帝), was an emperor of the Chinese/Qiang state Later Qin. He was the son of the founding emperor Yao Chang (Emperor Wucheng). For most of his reign, he did not use the title of emperor, but used the title Heavenly Prince (Tian Wang). During his reign, he destroyed the rival Former Qin and proceeded to expand his hegemony over nearly all of western China, as he temporarily seized all of Western Qin's territory and forced Southern Liang, Northern Liang, Western Liáng, and Qiao Zong's Western Shu (西蜀) all to at least nominally submit to him, but late in his reign, defeats on the battlefield, particularly at the hands of the rebel general Helian Bobo (who founded Xia), and internecine struggles between his sons and nephews greatly damaged the Later Qin state, and it was destroyed soon after his death
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Emperor Mingyuan Of Northern Wei
Emperor
Emperor
Mingyuan of Northern Wei
Northern Wei
((北)魏明元帝) (392–423 AD), personal name Tuoba
Tuoba
Si (拓拔嗣), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.[4] He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor
Emperor
Daowu
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Consort Yao
Consort Yao (姚夫人, personal name unknown) (died 420), who was initially Princess Xiping (西平公主) of the Chinese/Qiang state Later Qin, posthumously honored Empress Zhaoai (昭哀皇后, literally "the accomplished and lamentable empress"), was the wife of Emperor Mingyuan of the Chinese/ Xianbei
Xianbei
state Northern Wei
Northern Wei
(Tuoba Si). Princess Xiping was the daughter of Yao Xing (Emperor Wenhuan of Later Qin). It is not known when exactly her marriage to the emperor of Northern Wei
Northern Wei
was negotiated, but they married in 415. When she arrived at the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
capital Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi), Emperor Mingyuan welcomed her with a great ceremony due an empress
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Qifu Chipan
Qifu Chipan (Chinese: 乞伏熾磐; died 428), formally Prince Wenzhao of (Western) Qin ((西)秦文昭王), was a prince of the Xianbei state Western Qin. During his reign, Western Qin reached its prime after he destroyed and seized the territory of the rival state Southern Liang in 414, but it then began a gradual decline under attacks by Xia and Northern Liang. When he died in 428, he left his state in a troubled position, and by 431, the state was destroyed, and his son Qifu Mumo captured and then killed by the Xia emperor Helian Ding.Contents1 During Qifu Gangui's first reign 2 As Southern Liang and Later Qin subject 3 During Qifu Gangui's second reign 4 Early reign 5 Late reign 6 Era names 7 Personal information 8 ReferencesDuring Qifu Gangui's first reign[edit] It is not known when Qifu Shipan was born to his father Qifu Gangui, nor is it known for certain who his mother was
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Juqu Mengxun
Juqu Mengxun (Chinese: 沮渠蒙遜; 368–433) was a king of the Xiongnu state Northern Liang, and the first from the Juqu clan. His cousin Juqu Nancheng (沮渠男成) and he initially supported Duan Ye as prince of Northern Liang in 397 after rebelling against Later Liang, but in 401, Juqu Mengxun tricked Duan Ye into wrongly executing Juqu Nancheng, and then used that as an excuse to attack and kill Duan Ye, taking over the throne himself. While he maintained his own state, he also nominally served as a vassal of Later Qin, Jin, and Northern Wei. He was considered a capable ruler when young, but in old age was considered cruel and arbitrary.Contents1 Under Later Liang and Duan Ye 2 Early reign 3 Middle reign 4 Late reign 5 Era names 6 Personal information 7 ReferencesUnder Later Liang and Duan Ye[edit] Juqu Mengxun was born in 368, while the area that would later be his domain was under the rule of Former Liang, but little is known about his early years
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Emperor Taiwu Of Northern Wei
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei ((北)魏太武帝) (408–452), personal name Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾), nickname Bili (佛貍),[4] was an emperor of Northern Wei.[5] He was generally regarded as a capable ruler, and during his reign, Northern Wei roughly doubled in size and united all of northern China, thus ending the Sixteen Kingdoms period and, together with the southern dynasty Liu Song, started the Southern and Northern Dynasties period of Chinese history. He was a devout Taoist, under the influence of his prime minister Cui Hao, and in 444, at Cui Hao's suggestion and believing that Buddhists had supported the rebellion of Gai Wu (蓋吳), he ordered the abolition of Buddhism, at the penalty of death. This was the first of the Three Disasters of Wu for Chinese Buddhism. Late in his reign, his reign began to be cruel, and his people were also worn out by his incessant wars against Liu Song
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Helian Chang
Helian Chang (Chinese: 赫連昌; died 434), courtesy name Huan'guo (還國), nickname Zhe (折), was an emperor of the state Xia. He was the successor and a son of the founding emperor Helian Bobo (Emperor Wulie). After his father's death in 425, he tried to expand Xia further, but soon his state began to collapse in light of pressure from rival Northern Wei. In 427, his capital Tongwan (統萬, in modern Yulin, Shaanxi) fell to Northern Wei forces, and in 428 he himself was captured
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Princess Tuoba
Partha Swargeari (পাৰ্থ স্বৰ্গীয়াৰী), also known by her Dynasty of Northern Wei (386 to 534/535) title Princess Wuwei (武威公主), was the daughter of Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei and who later was a princess of the Chinese/Xiongnu state Northern Liang. Her husband was Juqu Mujian (Prince Ai). It is not known when she was created Princess Wuwei, either by her father or by her brother Emperor Taiwu, but in a move to ensure Juqu Mujian's loyalty, Emperor Taiwu married her to Juqu Mujian in 437, forcing Juqu Mujian to divorce his prior wife, Princess Li Jingshou. However, Juqu Mujian also carried on an affair with his brother's wife, Lady Li, and Lady Li and Juqu Mujian's sisters carried out a plot to poison Princess Tuoba. Emperor Taiwu, hearing that his sister had been poisoned, sent a number of doctors to the Northern Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu), and they were able to save her
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Fu Jian (337–385)
Fú Jiān (Chinese: 苻堅/苻坚; 337–385), courtesy name Yonggu (永固) or Wenyu (文玉), formally Emperor
Emperor
Xuanzhao of (Former) Qin ((前)秦宣昭帝), was an emperor (who, however, used the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang) during his reign) of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin, under whose rule (assisted by his able prime minister Wang Meng) the Former Qin
Former Qin
state reached its greatest glory—destroying Former Yan, Former Liang,[1] and Dai and seizing Jin's Yi Province (益州, modern Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing), posturing to destroy Jin as well to unite China, until he was repelled at the Battle of Fei River
Battle of Fei River
in 383
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Northern Wei
The Northern Wei
Northern Wei
or the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
Empire (/weɪ/),[7] also known as the Tuoba
Tuoba
Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba
Tuoba
clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534[8] (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties
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