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Heqet
HEQET (Egyptian ḥqt, also ḥqtyt "Heqtit") is an Egyptian goddess of fertility, identified with Hathor
Hathor
, represented in the form of a frog . To the Egyptians, the frog was an ancient symbol of fertility, related to the annual flooding of the Nile . Heqet
Heqet
was originally the female counterpart of Khnemu , or the wife of Khnemu by whom she became the mother of Heru-ur . It has been proposed that her name is the origin of the name of Hecate
Hecate
, the Greek goddess of witchcraft. NAMEThe name is written as ḥqt with the determinative "frog" (I7 ). The phonetic spelling may use the biliteral ḥq hieroglyph (S38 ) in place of uniliteral ḥ (V28 ). The alternative form ḥqtyt adds an explicit feminine ending, used alongside the "egg " determinative (H8 ) to emphasize the deity's femininity
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Osiris Myth
The OSIRIS MYTH is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology . It concerns the murder of the god Osiris , a primeval king of Egypt , and its consequences. Osiris's murderer, his brother Set , usurps his throne. Meanwhile, Osiris's wife Isis restores her husband's body, allowing him to posthumously conceive a son with her. The remainder of the story focuses on Horus
Horus
, the product of the union of Isis
Isis
and Osiris, who is at first a vulnerable child protected by his mother and then becomes Set's rival for the throne. Their often violent conflict ends with Horus's triumph, which restores order to Egypt after Set's unrighteous reign and completes the process of Osiris's resurrection. The myth, with its complex symbolism, is integral to the Egyptian conceptions of kingship and succession , conflict between order and disorder, and especially death and the afterlife
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Resurrection
RESURRECTION is the concept of coming back to life after death . In a number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects. The death and resurrection of Jesus , an example of resurrection, is the central focus of Christianity . As a religious concept, it is used in two distinct respects: a belief in the resurrection of individual souls that is current and ongoing (Christian idealism , realized eschatology ), or else a belief in a singular resurrection of the dead at the end of the world . The resurrection of the dead is a standard eschatological belief in the Abrahamic religions . Some believe the soul is the actual vehicle by which people are resurrected. Christian theological debate ensues with regard to what kind of resurrection is factual – either a spiritual resurrection with a spirit body into Heaven , or a material resurrection with a restored human body
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Ptolemaic Period
The PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM (/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt
Egypt
. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC
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Middle Kingdom Of Egypt
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology)
Kingdom (biology)
, a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE *
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Wepemnofret
WEPEMNOFRET was a Royal prince of the Fourth Dynasty . His father was Khufu , and mother unknown. A stela embedded in the wall of his tomb was found near the Great Pyramid of Giza , in the Giza West Field . The stele was discovered by the Hearst Expedition in 1905, and is considered to be the turning point between two artistic styles: the Archaic Style of the Fertile Period, and the Mature Style of the 4th Dynasty. REFERENCES * ^ Bunson, Margaret (2014). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing . p. 431. * ^ Smith, William Stevenson (March 1963). "The Stela of Prince Wepemnofret" (PDF). ARCHAEOLOGY . 16 (1). This article about Egyptology or subjects relating to Ancient Egypt is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Stele
A STELE (/ˈstiːli/ , STEE-lee ) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in ancient Western culture as a monument . Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines . The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief , or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way. Equally, stelae-like forms in non-Western cultures may be called by other terms, and the words "stele" and "stelae" are most consistently applied in archaeological contexts to objects from Europe, the ancient Near East and Egypt, China, and sometimes Pre-Columbian America
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Middle Egyptian Language
MIDDLE EGYPTIAN is the typical form of Egyptian written from 2000-1300 BC (after Old Egyptian and before Late Egyptian ), during the Middle Kingdom and the subsequent Second Intermediate Period . In writing, it makes use of around 900 hieroglyphs. Middle Egyptian is not descended directly from Old Egyptian, which was based on a different dialect. Eventually evolving into Late Egyptian language around the 14th century BC , the Middle Egyptian language remained in use as a literary standard language until the fourth century AD. As such, it is the classical variant of Egyptian that historically attracted most attention from Egyptology . Whilst most Middle Egyptian is seen written on monuments by Hieroglyphs , it is also written using a cursive variant , and the related hieratic . As it is usually the first and most used form of the Egyptian language, it is frequently (incorrectly) referred to simply as "Hieroglyphics"
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Early Dynastic Period Of Egypt
The ARCHAIC or EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD of Egypt
Egypt
is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties , lasting from the end of the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
. With the First Dynasty , the capital moved from Thinis
Thinis
to Memphis with a unified Egypt
Egypt
ruled by an Egyptian god-king . Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art , architecture and many aspects of religion , took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Damaged basalt head of a foreigner, from a door socket. Early Dynastic Period, 1st to 2nd Dynasties. From Thebes, Egypt
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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS (/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/ ) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
. It combined logographic , syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. Use of hieroglyphic writing arises from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age , around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III
Naqada III
), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC)
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Helwan
HELWAN (Arabic : حلوان‎‎ Ḥelwān, IPA: , Coptic : ϩⲁⲗⲟⲩⲁⲛ Halouan), is a city in Egypt
Egypt
and part of Greater Cairo
Cairo
, on the bank of the Nile
Nile
, opposite the ruins of Memphis . Originally a southern suburb of Cairo
Cairo
, it served as the capital of the now defunct Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
from April 2008 to April 2011, after which it was re-incorporated into the Cairo Governorate
Cairo Governorate
. The kism of Helwan
Helwan
had a population of 643,327 at the 2006 population census
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Westcar Papyrus
THE WESTCAR PAPYRUS (inventory -designation: P. Berlin 3033) is an ancient Egyptian text containing five stories about miracles performed by priests and magicians . In the text, each of these tales are told at the royal court of Pharaoh Cheops (4th dynasty ) by his sons. The story in the papyrus is usually rendered in English as "King Cheops and the Magicians" and "The Tale of King Cheops' Court". In German , in which the text of the Westcar Papyrus was first translated, it is rendered as Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar ("the fairy tales of Papyrus Westcar"). The surviving material of the Westcar Papyrus consists of twelve columns written in hieratic script. Miriam Lichtheim dates the document to the Hyksos period (18th to 16th century BC) and states that it is written in classical Middle Egyptian. Linguist and Egyptologist Verena Lepper thinks it may be possible that the Westcar Papyrus had already been written during the 13th dynasty
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Amulet
An AMULET is an object that is typically worn on one's person, and is alleged to have the magical power to protect its holder– either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing. Amulets are different from talismans because a talisman may have alleged magical powers other than protection. Amulets are sometimes confused with pendants – small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet, but so may any other object which purports to protect its holder from danger. Potential amulets include gems , especially engraved gems , statues , coins , drawings , pendants , rings , plant parts, animal parts, and even written words in the form of a magical spell or incantation to repel evil or bad luck. Magic scrolls are found to be used in various cultures, and artifacts of scrolls with magical inscriptions have been found in the middle east, Europe, and the far east
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Pantheism
PANTHEISM is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity , or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god , and hold a broad range of doctrines differing with regards to the forms of and relationships between divinity and reality. Pantheism
Pantheism
was popularized in Western culture
Western culture
as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza , :p.7 particularly his book Ethics
Ethics
, published in 1677. The term "pantheism" was coined by Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, and pantheistic elements have been identified in branches of Eastern religions such as Hinduism
Hinduism

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Polytheism
POLYTHEISM (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities , which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses , along with their own religions and rituals . In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles , and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God
God
or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies). Most of the polytheistic deities of ancient religions, with the notable exceptions of the Ancient Egyptian and Hindu deities, were conceived as having physical bodies. Polytheism
Polytheism
is a type of theism . Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism , the belief in a singular God
God
, in most cases transcendent
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