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Hepoxilin B3
HEPOXILINS (Hx) are a set of epoxyalcohol metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. they possess both an epoxide and an alcohol (i.e. hydroxyl ) residue. HXA3, HXB3, and their non-enzymatically formed isomers are nonclassic eicosanoid derived from acid the (PUFA), arachidonic acid . A second group of less well studied hepoxilins, HXA4, HXB4, and their non-enzymatically formed isomers are nonclassical eicosanoids derived from the PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid . Recently, 14,15-HxA3 and 14,15-HxB3 have been defined as arachidonic acid derivatives that are produced by a different metabolic pathway than HxA3, HxB3, HxA4, or HxB4 and differ from the aforementioned hepoxilins in the positions of their hydroxyl and epoxide residues
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Esterified
In chemistry , an ESTER is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy ) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol . Glycerides , which are fatty acid esters of glycerol , are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids , and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones . Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA
DNA
molecules. Nitrate
Nitrate
esters , such as nitroglycerin , are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics , with monomers linked by ester moieties
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Hippocampus
The HIPPOCAMPUS (named after its resemblance to the seahorse , from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates . Humans and other mammals have two hippocampuses, one in each side of the brain . The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory , and in spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex (allocortical ) and in primates in the medial temporal lobe . It contains two main interlocking parts: the hippocampus proper (also called Ammon's horn) and the dentate gyrus . In Alzheimer\'s disease (and other forms of dementia ), the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; short-term memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms
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Sphinganine
SAFINGOL is a lyso-sphingolipid protein kinase inhibitor . It has the molecular formula C18H39NO2 and is a colorless solid . Medicinally , safingol has demonstrated promising anticancer potential as a modulator of multi-drug resistance and as an inducer of necrosis . The administration of safingol alone has not been shown to exert a significant effect on tumor cell growth . However, preclinical and clinical studies have shown that combining safingol with conventional chemotherapy agents such as fenretinide , vinblastine , irinotecan and mitomycin C can dramatically potentiate their antitumor effects. Currently in Phase I clinical trials , it is believed to be safe to co-administer with cisplatin . MECHANISMThe underlying mechanism by which safingol induces cell death is poorly understood
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Very Long Chain Fatty Acid
A VERY LONG CHAIN FATTY ACID (VLCFA) is a fatty acid with 22 or more carbons. Their biosynthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum . VLCFA's can represent up to a few percent of the total fatty acid content of a cell. Unlike most fatty acids, VLCFAs are too long to be metabolized in the mitochondria , and must be metabolized in peroxisomes . Certain peroxisomal disorders, such as adrenoleukodystrophy and Zellweger syndrome , can be associated with an accumulation of VLCFAs. SEE ALSO * ACADVL * SLC27A2 * SLC27A5 * Cerotic acid , the fatty acid associated with adrenoleukodystrophyREFERENCES * ^ Jakobsson, Andreas; Westerberg, Rolf; Jacobsson, Anders "Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism" Progress in Lipid Research 2006, volume 45, pp. 237-249. doi :10.1016/j.plipres.2006.01.004 * ^ "Very-long-chain fatty acids from the animal and plant kingdoms" Rezanka, Tomas Progress in Lipid Research 1989, volume 28, pp. 147-87
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ALOX12B
NM_001139 NM_009659 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001130 NP_033789 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 17: 8.07 – 8.09 Mb Chr 17: 69.16 – 69.17 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseARACHIDONATE 12-LIPOXYGENASE, 12R TYPE, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and ARACHICONATE LIPOYGENASE 3, is a lipoxygenase -type enzyme composed of 701 amino acids and encoded by the ALOX12B gene . The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 and ALOX15B
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Pineal Gland
The PINEAL GLAND, also known as the PINEAL BODY, CONARIUM or EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain . The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone , hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus , near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres , tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland produces melatonin , a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The most important exception is the hagfish , which is often thought of as the most primitive extant vertebrate. Even in the hagfish, however, there may be a "pineal equivalent" structure in the dorsal diencephalon . The lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum
Branchiostoma lanceolatum
, the nearest existing relative to vertebrates, also lacks a recognizable pineal gland
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15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic Acid
15-HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACID (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid , i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid . Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz., the lipoxins , a class of pro-inflammatory mediators, the eoxins , and other products that have less well-defined activities and functions. Thus, 15(S)-HETE and 15(S)-HpETE, in addition to having intrinsic biological activities, are key precursors to numerous biologically active derivatives
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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Chirality
CHIRALITY /kaɪˈrælɪtiː/ is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science. The word chirality is derived from the Greek , χειρ (kheir), "hand", a familiar chiral object. An object or a system is CHIRAL if it is distinguishable from its mirror image ; that is, it cannot be superposed onto it. Conversely, a mirror image of an achiral object, such as a sphere, cannot be distinguished from the object. A chiral object and its mirror image are called ENANTIOMORPHS (Greek, "opposite forms") or, when referring to molecules, ENANTIOMERS . A non-chiral object is called ACHIRAL (sometimes also AMPHICHIRAL) and can be superposed on its mirror image. If the object is non-chiral and is imagined as being colored blue and its mirror image is imagined as colored yellow, then by a series of rotations and translations the two can be superposed producing green with none of the original colors remaining
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Gene Knockout
A GENE KNOCKOUT (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism 's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism). Also known as KNOCKOUT ORGANISMS or simply KNOCKOUTS, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced , but which has an unknown or incompletely known function. Researchers draw inferences from the difference between the knockout organism and normal individuals. The term also refers to the process of creating such an organism, as in "knocking out" a gene. The technique is essentially the opposite of a gene knockin . Knocking out two genes simultaneously in an organism is known as a DOUBLE KNOCKOUT (DKO). Similarly the terms TRIPLE KNOCKOUT (TKO) and QUADRUPLE KNOCKOUTS (QKO) are used to describe three or four knocked out genes, respectively
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Peroxidase
PEROXIDASES (EC number 1.11.1.x) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR + 2 e electron donor + 2 H + Peroxidase
Peroxidase
ROH + R OH {displaystyle {ce {{ROOR'}+overbrace {2e^{-}} ^{electron donor}+2H+->{ROH}+R'OH}}} For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide , but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides . Peroxidases can contain a heme cofactor in their active sites, or alternately redox-active cysteine or selenocysteine residues. The nature of the electron donor is very dependent on the structure of the enzyme. * For example, horseradish peroxidase can use a variety of organic compounds as electron donors and acceptors
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Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase
1S8O, 1VJ5, 1ZD2, 1ZD3, 1ZD4, 1ZD5, 3ANS, 3ANT, 3I1Y, 3I28, 3KOO, 3OTQ, 3PDC, 3WK4, 3WK5, 3WK6, 3WK7, 3WK8, 3WK9, 3WKA, 3WKB, 3WKC, 3WKD, 3WKE, 4C4X, 4C4Y, 4C4Z, 4HAI, 4J03, 4JNC, 4OCZ, 4OD0, 4X6X, 4X6Y, 4Y2J, 4Y2P, 4Y2Q, 4Y2R, 4Y2S, 4Y2T, 4Y2U, 4Y2V, 4Y2X, 4Y2Y, 5AHX, 5AI0, 5AI4, 5AI5, 5AI6, 5AI8, 5AI9, 5AIA, 5AIB, 5AIC, 5AK3, 5AK4, 5AK5, 5AK6, 5AKE, 5AKG, 5AKH, 5AKI, 5AKJ, 5AKK, 5AKL, 5AKX, 5AKY, 5AKZ, 5ALD, 5ALE, 5ALF, 5ALG, 5ALH, 5ALI, 5ALJ, 5ALK, 5ALL, 5ALM, 5ALN, 5ALO, 5ALP, 5ALQ, 5ALR, 5ALS, 5ALT, 5ALU, 5ALV, 5ALW, 5ALX, 5ALY, 5ALZ, 5AM0, 5AM1, 5AM2, 5AM3, 5AM4, 5AM5, 5FP0 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES EPHX2, CEH, SEH, Epoxide hydrolase 2 EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 99500 HomoloGene: 37558 GeneCards: EPHX2 GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome 8 (human) BAND No data available START 27,490,779 bp END 27,545,564 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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Epoxide Hydrolase
In biochemistry , a HYDROLASE or HYDROLYTIC ENZYME is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond . For example, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction is a hydrolase: A–B + H2O → A–OH + B–H CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Classification * 3 Clinical considerations * 4 Etymology and pronunciation * 5 See also * 6 References NOMENCLATURESystematic names of hydrolases are formed as "substrate hydrolase." However, common names are typically in the form "substratease." For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase that cleaves nucleic acids . CLASSIFICATIONHydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes
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Leukotriene A4
LEUKOTRIENE A4 is a leukotriene . Leukotriene A4 hydrolase converts it to leukotriene B4 . Leukotriene C4 synthase converts it to leukotriene C4 . Eicosanoid synthesis
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Hodgkin Disease
HODGKIN\'S LYMPHOMA (HL) is a type of lymphoma , which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind. Symptoms may include fever , night sweats , and weight loss . Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin . Those affected may feel tired or be itchy. About half of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma are due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Other risk factors include a family history of the condition and having HIV/AIDS . There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma . Diagnosis is by finding Hodgkin's cells such as multinucleated Reed–Sternberg cells (RS cells) in lymph nodes. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and stem cell transplant . The choice of treatment often depends on how advanced the cancer has become and whether or not it has favorable features
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