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Hepoxilin B3
Hepoxilins (Hx) are a set of epoxyalcohol metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. they possess both an epoxide and an alcohol (i.e. hydroxyl) residue. HxA3, HxB3, and their non-enzymatically formed isomers are nonclassic eicosanoid derived from acid the (PUFA), arachidonic acid. A second group of less well studied hepoxilins, HxA4, HxB4, and their non-enzymatically formed isomers are nonclassical eicosanoids derived from the PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid. Recently, 14,15-HxA3 and 14,15-HxB3 have been defined as arachidonic acid derivatives that are produced by a different metabolic pathway than HxA3, HxB3, HxA4, or HxB4 and differ from the aforementioned hepoxilins in the positions of their hydroxyl and epoxide residues
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase
1S8O, 1VJ5, 1ZD2, 1ZD3, 1ZD4, 1ZD5, 3ANS, 3ANT, 3I1Y, 3I28, 3KOO, 3OTQ, 3PDC, 3WK4, 3WK5, 3WK6, 3WK7, 3WK8, 3WK9, 3WKA, 3WKB, 3WKC, 3WKD, 3WKE, 4C4X, 4C4Y, 4C4Z, 4HAI, 4J03, 4JNC, 4OCZ, 4OD0, 4X6X, 4X6Y, 4Y2J, 4Y2P, 4Y2Q, 4Y2R, 4Y2S, 4Y2T, 4Y2U, 4Y2V, 4Y2X, 4Y2Y, 5AHX, 5AI0, 5AI4, 5AI5, 5AI6, 5AI8, 5AI9, 5AIA, 5AIB, 5AIC, 5AK3, 5AK4, 5AK5, 5AK6, 5AKE, 5AKG, 5AKH, 5AKI, 5AKJ, 5AKK, 5AKL, 5AKX, 5AKY, 5AKZ, 5ALD, 5ALE, 5ALF, 5ALG, 5ALH, 5ALI, 5ALJ, 5ALK, 5ALL, 5ALM, 5ALN, 5ALO, 5ALP, 5ALQ, 5ALR, 5ALS, 5ALT, 5ALU, 5ALV, 5ALW, 5ALX, 5ALY, 5ALZ, 5AM0, 5AM1, 5AM2, 5AM3, 5AM4, 5AM5, 5FP0IdentifiersAliases EPHX2, CEH, SEH, Epoxide hydrolase 2External IDs MGI: 99500 HomoloGene: 37558 GeneCards: EPHX2Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome 8 (human)[1]Band 8p21.2-p21.1 Start 27,490,779 bp[1]End 27,545,564 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr. Chromosome 14 (mouse)[2]Band 14 D114 34.36 cM Start 66,084,374 bp[2]End 66,124,500 bp[2]<
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Gene Knockout
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism). However, KO can also refer to the gene that is knocked out or the organism that carries the gene knockout. Knockout organisms or simply knockouts are used to study gene function, usually by investigating the effect of gene loss. Researchers draw inferences from the difference between the knockout organism and normal individuals. The KO technique is essentially the opposite of a gene knockin. Knocking out two genes simultaneously in an organism is known as a double knockout (DKO). Similarly the terms triple knockout (TKO) and quadruple knockouts (QKO) are used to describe three or four knocked out genes, respectively. However, one needs to distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous KOs
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Peroxidase
Peroxidases (EC number 1.11.1.x) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR ′ + 2 e − electron donor + 2 H + → Peroxidase ROH + R ′ OH displaystyle ce ROOR'+ overset electron atop donor 2e^ - +2H+->[ ce Peroxidase
Peroxidase
] ROH +R'OH For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides
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15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic Acid
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
(also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 1 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid
5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid
(15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz., the lipoxins, a class of pro-inflammatory mediators, the eoxins, and other products that have less well-defined activities and functions
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Pineal Gland
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone, hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join.[1][2] Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The most important exception is a primitive vertebrate, the hagfish
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Hippocampus
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex (allocortical)[1][2][3] and in primates in the medial temporal lobe
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Esterified
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.[1] Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA
DNA
molecules
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Sphinganine
Safingol is a lyso-sphingolipid protein kinase inhibitor. It has the molecular formula C18H39NO2 and is a colorless solid. Medicinally, safingol has demonstrated promising anticancer potential as a modulator of multi-drug resistance and as an inducer of necrosis. The administration of safingol alone has not been shown to exert a significant effect on tumor cell growth.[2] However, preclinical and clinical studies have shown that combining safingol with conventional chemotherapy agents such as fenretinide, vinblastine, irinotecan and mitomycin C can dramatically potentiate their antitumor effects. Currently in Phase I clinical trials, it is believed to be safe to co-administer with cisplatin.[3][4] Mechanism[edit] The underlying mechanism by which safingol induces cell death is poorly understood
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Very Long Chain Fatty Acid
A very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) is a fatty acid with 22 or more carbons. Their biosynthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum.[1] VLCFA's can represent up to a few percent of the total fatty acid content of a cell.[2] Unlike most fatty acids, VLCFAs are too long to be metabolized in the mitochondria, and must be metabolized in peroxisomes. Certain peroxisomal disorders, such as adrenoleukodystrophy and Zellweger syndrome, can be associated with an accumulation of VLCFAs.[3][4] See also[edit]ACADVL SLC27A2 SLC27A5 Cerotic acid, the fatty acid associated with adrenoleukodystrophyReferences[edit]^ Jakobsson, Andreas; Westerberg, Rolf; Jacobsson, Anders "Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism" Progress in Lipid
Lipid
Research 2006, volume 45, pp
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ALOX12B
NM_001139NM_009659RefSeq (protein)NP_001130NP_033789Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 8.07 – 8.09 Mb Chr 11: 69.16 – 69.17 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseArachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and arachiconate lipoygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type enzyme composed of 701 amino acids and encoded by the ALOX12B gene.[5][6][7][8] The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases,
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Epoxide Hydrolase
Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products. Several enzymes possess EH activity. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (epoxide hydrolase 1, EH1, or mEH), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, epoxide hydrolase 2, EH2, or cytoplasmic epoxide hydrolase), and the more recently discovered but not as yet well defined functionally, epoxide hydrolase 3 (EH3) and epoxide hydrolase 4 (EH4) are structurally closely related isozymes
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase
In enzymology, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactioncis-stilbene oxide + H2O ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons (+)-(1R,2R)-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diolThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cis-stilbene oxide and H2O, whereas its product is (+)-(1R,2R)-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on ether bonds (ether hydrolases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is cis-stilbene-oxide hydrolase. Other names in common use include epoxide hydratase (ambiguous), microsomal epoxide hydratase (ambiguous), epoxide hydrase, microsomal epoxide hydrase, arene-oxide hydratase (ambiguous), benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxide hydratase, benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-epoxide hydratase, aryl epoxide hydrase (ambiguous), cis-epoxide hydrolase, and mEH
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Epoxide Hydrolase 2
1S8O, 1VJ5, 1ZD2, 1ZD3, 1ZD4, 1ZD5, 3ANS, 3ANT, 3I1Y, 3I28, 3KOO, 3OTQ, 3PDC, 3WK4, 3WK5, 3WK6, 3WK7, 3WK8, 3WK9, 3WKA, 3WKB, 3WKC, 3WKD, 3WKE, 4C4X, 4C4Y, 4C4Z, 4HAI, 4J03, 4JNC, 4OCZ, 4OD0, 4X6X, 4X6Y, 4Y2J, 4Y2P, 4Y2Q, 4Y2R, 4Y2S, 4Y2T, 4Y2U, 4Y2V, 4Y2X, 4Y2Y, 5AHX, 5AI0, 5AI4, 5AI5, 5AI6, 5AI8, 5AI9, 5AIA, 5AIB, 5AIC, 5AK3, 5AK4, 5AK5, 5AK6, 5AKE, 5AKG, 5AKH, 5AKI, 5AKJ, 5AKK, 5AKL, 5AKX, 5AKY, 5AKZ, 5ALD, 5ALE, 5ALF, 5ALG, 5ALH, 5ALI, 5ALJ, 5ALK, 5ALL, 5ALM, 5ALN, 5ALO, 5ALP, 5ALQ, 5ALR, 5ALS, 5ALT, 5ALU, 5ALV, 5ALW, 5ALX, 5ALY, 5ALZ, 5AM0, 5AM1, 5AM2, 5AM3, 5AM4, 5AM5, 5FP0IdentifiersAliases EPHX2, CEH, SEH, Epoxide hydrolase 2External IDs MGI: 99500 HomoloGene: 37558 GeneCards: EPHX2Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome 8 (human)[1]Band 8p21.2-p21.1 Start 27,490,779 bp[1]End 27,545,564 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr. Chromosome 14 (mouse)[2]Band 14 D114 34.36 cM Start 66,084,374 bp[2]End 66,124,500 bp[2]<
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