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Henry Koster (author)
Henry Koster
Henry Koster
(c. 1793 – 15 May 1820), also known in Portuguese as Henrique da Costa, was an English coffee-grower, explorer and author who spent most of his short adult life in Brazil, writing about his travels, slavery, and other subjects. His work was also published in French under the name of Henri Koster.Contents1 Life 2 Major works 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksLife[edit]Brazil at the time of KosterThe son of John Theodore Koster, of Liverpool,[1] a sugar merchant, Koster was born in Portugal
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Fazenda
A fazenda is a plantation found throughout Brazil; during the colonial period (16th - 18th centuries) they were concentrated primarily in the northeastern region, where (sugar) was produced, expanding during the 19th century in the southeastern region to coffee production. Fazenda now denotes any kind of farm. Fazendas created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. Coffee
Coffee
provided a new basis for agricultural expansion in southern Brazil. In the provinces of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and then São Paulo, coffee estates, or fazendas, began to spread toward the interior as new lands were opened.[1] By 1850, coffee made up more than 50% of Brazil's exports, and more than half of world coffee production.[2] Effects[edit] Along with the expansion of coffee growing came an intensification of slavery in Brazil, as the country's primary form of labor
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International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.[2] It includes basic bibliographical details, associated with the names, and its goals include eliminating the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names.[3][4] The IPNI also maintains a list of standardized author abbreviations. These were initially based on Brummitt & Powell (1992), but new names and abbreviations are constantly added.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] IPNI is the product of a collaboration betwe
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).[1] In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany, it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations. There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology. In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (A)
An abbreviation (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short [1]) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.[2]:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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The Gentleman's Magazine
The Gentleman's Magazine
Magazine
was founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731.[1] It ran uninterrupted for almost 200 years, until 1922. It was the first to use the term magazine (from the French magazine, meaning "storehouse") for a periodical.[2] Samuel Johnson's first regular employment as a writer was with The Gentleman's Magazine.Contents1 History 2 Series 3 Indexes 4 See also4.1 Authors of works appearing in The Gentleman's Magazine5 Artists, painters, topographers associated with The Gentleman's Magazine 6 References 7 Further reading 8 See also 9 External linksHistory[edit] The original complete title was The Gentleman's Magazine: or, Trader's monthly intelligencer. Cave's innovation was to create a monthly digest of news and commentary on any topic the educated public might be interested in, from commodity prices to Latin poetry
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Robert Southey
Robert Southey
Robert Southey
(/ˈsaʊði/ or /ˈsʌði/[a] 12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843. Although his fame has long been eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Southey's verse still enjoys some popularity. Southey was also a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer, historian and biographer. His biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and Horatio Nelson. The last has rarely been out of print since its publication in 1813 and was adapted for the screen in the 1926 British film, Nelson
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Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon
(/ˈlɪzbən/; Portuguese: Lisboa, IPA: [liʒˈboɐ] ( listen))[3] is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700[4] within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km².[5] Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union.[1] About 3 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
(which represents approximately 27% of the country's population).[2] It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon
Lisbon
lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the River Tagus
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State Of Brazil
The State of Brazil
State of Brazil
(Portuguese: Estado do Brasil) was one of the states of the Portuguese Empire, in the Americas
Americas
during the period of Colonial Brazil.Contents1 History1.1 Composition 1.2 Captaincies created by the state 1.3 Governors2 References 3 External linksHistory[edit] In 1621, the Governorate General of Brazil
Governorate General of Brazil
was separated into two states, the State of Brazil
State of Brazil
and the State of Maranhão
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Leslie Bethell
Leslie Michael Bethell[1] (born 12 February 1937) is an English historian, university professor, and Brazilianist who specialises in the study of 19th- and 20th-century Latin America, focusing on Brazil in particular.[2] He received both his Bachelor of Arts and Doctorate in History at the University of London.[1] Bethell has served as Visiting Professor at the University Research Institute of Rio de Janeiro at the Universidade Cândido Mendes, the University of California, San Diego, and at the University of Chicago.[2] He has been associated with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, most recently being appointed Senior Scholar of their Brazil Institute, since 1987.[2] He was the founding director of the Centre for Brazilian Studies at the University of Oxford, serving in that capacity from 19
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Recife
Recife
Recife
(Brazilian Portuguese: [ʁeˈsifi] ( listen))[2] is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil
Brazil
with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016.[3][4][5] The former capital of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India
India
Company. Recife
Recife
was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe
Beberibe
and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool
(/ˈlɪvərpuːl/) is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 484,578 in 2016 within the City
City
of Liverpool borough.[5] With its surrounding areas, it is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the UK, with over 2.24 million people in 2011.[6] The local authority is Liverpool
Liverpool
City
City
Council, the most populous local government district within the metropolitan county of Merseyside
Merseyside
and the largest within the Liverpool
Liverpool
City
City
Region. Liverpool
Liverpool
is located on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, and historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby
West Derby
in the south west of the county of Lancashire.[7][8] It became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880
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Slavery
Slavery
Slavery
is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.[1] A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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