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Hellenistic
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Literature
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Stato Da Màr
The Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea
Morea
(the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete
Crete
(the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus.[1] It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e
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Early Modern Period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c
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Axis Occupation Of Greece
The occupation of Greece
Greece
by the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
(Greek: Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece
Greece
to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece
Greece
since October 1940. Following the conquest of Crete, all of Greece
Greece
was occupied by June 1941. The occupation in the mainland lasted until Germany and its ally Bulgaria
Bulgaria
were forced to withdraw under Allied pressure in early October 1944
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Third Hellenic Republic
Third Hellenic Republic
Third Hellenic Republic
(Greek: Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day. It is considered the third period of republican rule in Greece, following the First Republic during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32) and the Second Republic during the temporary abolition of the monarchy in 1924–35. The term "Metapolitefsi" (Μεταπολίτευση) is commonly used for this period, but this term concerns more often with the first years immediately after the fall of the military junta
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First Hellenic Republic
The First Hellenic Republic
Republic
(Greek: Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a historiographical term for the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
against the Ottoman Empire. It is used to emphasize the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associate this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third Republics.Contents1 History 2 Heads of State 3 See also 4 External linksHistory[edit] In the first stages of the 1821 uprising, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by a central administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus
First National Assembly of Epidaurus
in early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution, marking the birth of the modern Greek state
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Western Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
Asia
or Southwest Asia
Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
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Septinsular Republic
The Septinsular Republic
Republic
(Greek: Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Italian: Repubblica Settinsulare, Ottoman Turkish: جزاييرى صباى موجتميا جومهورو‎ Cezayir-i Seb'a-i Müctemia Cumhuru) was an island republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Russian and Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands. It succeeded the previous French departments of Greece. It was the first time Greeks had been granted even limited self-government since the fall of the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to the Ottomans in 1460.[4] In 1807, the republic was ceded to Napoleon's First French Empire, but the islands were not annexed by France, keeping their institutions of government (known in French as République Septinsulaire or République des Sept-Îles)
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Exploration
Exploration
Exploration
is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration
Exploration
occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since then, major explorations after the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
have occurred for reasons mostly aimed at information discovery. In scientific research, exploration is one of three purposes of empirical research (the other two being description and explanation). The term is often used metaphorically
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Death Of Alexander The Great
The death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates. According to a Babylonian astronomical diary, Alexander died between the evening of June 10 and the evening of June 11, 323 BC,[1] at the age of thirty-two
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Constitutional History Of Greece
In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions (with the exception of the Constitutions of 1968 and 1973 imposed by a dictatorship).Contents1 Greek War of Independence 2 From the absolute to the constitutional monarchy (1833–1924) 3 The Second Hellenic Republic
Second Hellenic Republic
and the Restoration (1925–1941) 4 The Kingdom of
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Helladic Period
Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Greece
Greece
during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(c. 3200–1050 BC). The term is commonly used in archaeology and art history. It was intended to complement two parallel terms, "Cycladic", identifying approximately the same sequence with reference to the Aegean Bronze
Bronze
Age, and "Minoan", with reference to the civilization of Crete. The scheme applies primarily to pottery and is a relative dating system. The pottery at any given site typically can be ordered into "Early", "Middle" and "Late" on the basis of style and technique. The total time window allowed for the site is then divided into these periods proportionately. As it turns out, there is a correspondence between "Early" over all Greece, etc
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National Schism
The National Schism
National Schism
(Greek: Εθνικός Διχασμός, Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) was a series of disagreements between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos
Eleftherios Venizelos
regarding the foreign policy of Greece
Greece
in the period of 1910–1922 of which the tipping point was whether Greece should enter World War I. Venizelos was in support of the Allies and wanted Greece
Greece
to join the war on their side, while the pro-German King wanted Greece
Greece
to remain neutral, which would favor the plans of the Central Powers. The disagreement had wider implications, since it would also affect the character and role of the king in the state
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