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Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism[1] is the astronomical model in which the Earth
Earth
and planets revolve around the Sun
Sun
at the center of the Solar System. Historically, Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism
was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth
Earth
at the center. The notion that the Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos,[2] but at least in the medieval world, Aristarchus's Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism
attracted little attention—possibly because of the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era.[3] It was not until the 16th century that a geometric mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution
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Heliocentric (Paul Weller Album)
Heliocentric is the fifth studio album by Paul Weller, released 10 April 2000 in the UK. Track listing[edit] The original album cover has a printing mistake which shows tracks 4 & 5 in the wrong order
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Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius
Macrobius, fully Macrobius
Macrobius
Ambrosius Theodosius, also known as Theodosius, was a Roman provincial who lived during the early fifth century, at the transition of the Roman to the Byzantine Empire, and when Latin
Latin
was as widespread as Greek among the elite
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Friedrich Bessel
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (German: [ˈbɛsəl]; 22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. He was the first astronomer who determined reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. A special type of mathematical functions were named Bessel functions after Bessel's death, though they had originally been discovered by Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli
and then generalised by Bessel.Contents1 Life and family 2 Work 3 Publications 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and family[edit] Bessel was born in Minden, Westphalia, administrative center of Minden-Ravensberg, as second son of a civil servant. He was born into a large family in Germany. At the age of 14 Bessel was apprenticed to the import-export concern Kulenkamp at Bremen. The business's reliance on cargo ships led him to turn his mathematical skills to problems in navigation
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William Herschel
Frederick William Herschel,[1] KH, FRS (/ˈhɜːrʃəl, ˈhɛər-/;[2] German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked. Born in the Electorate of Hanover, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before migrating to Great Britain in 1757 at the age of nineteen. Herschel constructed his first large telescope in 1774, after which he spent nine years carrying out sky surveys to investigate double stars. The resolving power of the Herschel telescopes revealed that the nebulae in the Messier catalogue
Messier catalogue
were clusters of stars. Herschel published catalogues of nebulae in 1802 (2,500 objects) and in 1820 (5,000 objects). In the course of an observation on 13 March 1781, he realized that one celestial body he had observed was not a star, but a planet, Uranus
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Telescope
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light)[citation needed]. The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands
Netherlands
at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They found use in both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first telescopes being made. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Elliptic Orbit
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0. In a stricter sense, it is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 (thus excluding the circular orbit). In a wider sense, it is a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
with negative energy. This includes the radial elliptic orbit, with eccentricity equal to 1. In a gravitational two-body problem with negative energy, both bodies follow similar elliptic orbits with the same orbital period around their common barycenter
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Mercury (planet)
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun
Sun
of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun
Sun
within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and never exceeds 28° away from the Sun. When viewed from Earth, this proximity to the Sun
Sun
means the planet can only be seen near the western or eastern horizon during the early evening or early morning. At this time it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is often far more difficult to observe than Venus
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Venus
Venus
Venus
is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[12] It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun
Sun
would rise in the west and set in the east).[13] It does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty
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Mathematical Model
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modeling. Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, Earth science, meteorology) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, artificial intelligence), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science). Physicists, mathematicians, engineers, statisticians, operations research analysts, and economists use mathematical models most extensively[citation needed]
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Astronomical Units
The astronomical unit (symbol: au,[1][2][3] ua,[4] or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth
Earth
to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 7011149597870700000♠149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012.[5] The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System
Solar System
or around other stars
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Egyptians
Egyptians
Egyptians
(Egyptian Arabic: مَصريين‎  IPA: [mɑsˤɾɪjˈjiːn]; Maṣreyyīn; Arabic: مِصريّون‎; Coptic: ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt
Egypt
and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity
Egyptian identity
is closely tied to geography. The population of Egypt
Egypt
is concentrated in the lower Nile
Nile
Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity. The daily language of the Egyptians
Egyptians
is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Solar System
The Solar System[a] is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun
Sun
and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly.[b] Of those objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
directly, the largest eight are the planets,[c] with the remainder being smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System
Solar System
bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun
Sun
indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.[d] The Solar System
Solar System
formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth
Earth
and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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