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Hedonism
HEDONISM is a school of thought that argues that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the proper aim of human life. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain ), but when having finally gained that pleasure, either through intrinsic or extrinsic goods, happiness remains stationary. Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is also the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus of Cyrene, a student of Socrates
Socrates
. He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good. Hedonism
Hedonism
is a sub-philosophy of utilitarianism , which says to act in a way that maximizes utility
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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-ism
-ISM is a suffix in many English words, originally derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
suffix -ισμός (-ismós), reaching English through the Latin -ismus, and the French -isme. It is often used in philosophy to define specific ideologies , and, as such, at times it is used as a noun when referring to a broad range of ideologies in a general sense. The suffix 'ism' is neutral and therefore bears no connotations associated with any of the many ideologies it has been appended to; such determinations can only be informed by public opinion regarding specific ideologies. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading HISTORYThe first recorded usage of the suffix ism as a separate word in its own right was in 1680. By the nineteenth century it was being used by Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
to signify a pre-packaged ideology
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Pierre Gassendi
PIERRE GASSENDI (French: ; also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher , priest , astronomer , and mathematician . While he held a church position in south-east France, he also spent much time in Paris, where he was a leader of a group of free-thinking intellectuals. He was also an active observational scientist , publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631. The lunar crater Gassendi is named after him. He wrote numerous philosophical works, and some of the positions he worked out are considered significant, finding a way between skepticism and dogmatism . Richard Popkin indicates that Gassendi was one of the first thinkers to formulate the modern "scientific outlook", of moderated skepticism and empiricism . He clashed with his contemporary Descartes on the possibility of certain knowledge
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Hedonophobia
HEDONOPHOBIA is an excessive fear or aversion to obtaining pleasure . The purported background of some such associated feelings may be due to an egalitarian-related sentiment, whereby one feels a sense of solidarity with individuals in the lowest Human Development Index countries. For others, a recurring thought that some things are too good to be true has resulted in an ingrainedness that they are not entitled to feel too good. The condition is relatively rare. Sometimes, it can be triggered by a religious upbringing wherein asceticism is propounded. Hedonophobia is formally defined as the fear of experiencing pleasure. 'Hedon' or 'hedone' comes from ancient Greek, meaning 'pleasure' + fear: 'phobia'. Hedonophobia is the inability to enjoy pleasurable experiences, and is often a persistent malady . Diagnosis of the condition is usually related to the age of 'maturity' in each country where the syndrome exists
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Socrates
SOCRATES (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/ ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian ) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy . He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers , especially the writings of his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes . Plato\'s dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates
Socrates
to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates
Socrates
himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato"
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Intrinsic Value (ethics)
Instrumental and intrinsic value are technical labels for the two poles of an ancient dichotomy . People seem to reason differently about what they ought to do (good ends) and what they are able to do (good means). When people reason about ends, they apply the criterion INTRINSIC VALUE. When they reason about means they apply the criterion INSTRUMENTAL VALUE. Few question the existence of these two criteria, but their relative authority is in constant dispute. This article explains the meaning of and disputes about these two criteria for judging means and ends. Evidence is drawn from the work of four scholars. John Dewey
John Dewey
and John Fagg Foster provided arguments against the dichotomy, while Jacques Ellul and Anjan Chakravartty provided arguments in its favor
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Happiness
In philosophy, HAPPINESS translates the Greek concept of eudaimonia , and refers to the good life , or flourishing, rather than simply an emotion. In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by, among others, positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy . Happy mental states may reflect judgements by a person about their overall well-being. Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology , social psychology, clinical and medical research and happiness economics . The United Nations
United Nations
declared 20 March the International Day of Happiness
Happiness
to recognise the relevance of happiness and well-being as universal goals
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Pain
PAIN is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, or bumping the "funny bone ". Because it is a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge. The International Association for the Study of Pain 's widely used definition states: " Pain
Pain
is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage." In medical diagnosis, pain is regarded as a symptom of an underlying condition. Pain
Pain
motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, and to avoid similar experiences in the future
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Sensation (psychology)
SENSATION is the body's detection of external or internal stimulation (e.g., eyes detecting light waves, ears detecting sound waves). Perception utilizes the brain to make sense of the stimulation (e.g., seeing a chair, hearing a guitar). Sensation involves three steps: * Sensory receptors detect stimuli. * Sensory stimuli are transduced into electrical impulses (action potentials ) to be decoded by the brain. * Electrical impulses move along neural pathways to specific parts of the brain wherein the impulses are decoded into useful information (perception ).For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors – which are sensory receptors in the skin – register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction
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Epic Of Gilgamesh
The EPIC OF GILGAMESH is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh (Sumerian for "Gilgamesh"), king of Uruk , dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2100 BC). These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit , SHūTUR ELI SHARRī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit SHA NAQBA īMURU ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown")
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Aristippus The Younger
ARISTIPPUS THE YOUNGER (/ˌærəˈstɪpəs/ ; Greek : Ἀρίστιππος), of Cyrene , was the grandson of Aristippus of Cyrene , and is widely believed to have formalized the principles of Cyrenaic philosophy. He lived in the second half of the 4th century BC. His mother was Arete , daughter of the elder Aristippus, and it was she who imparted her father's philosophy to her son, hence he received the nickname "Mother-taught" (metrodidaktos). Among his pupils was Theodorus the Atheist . Not much else is known about Aristippus the Younger. The idea that he systemised his grandfather's philosophy is based on the authority of Aristocles (as quoted by Eusebius ): Among other hearers was his own daughter Arete, who having borne a son named him Aristippus, and he from having been introduced by her to philosophical studies was called his mother's pupil (μητροδίδακτος)
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Nineteenth Dynasty Of Egypt
The NINETEENTH DYNASTY OF EGYPT (notated DYNASTY XIX, alternatively 19TH DYNASTY or DYNASTY 19) is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I , whom Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne. DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT All years are BC Early First Dynasty I c
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Ancient Egyptian Burial Customs
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of FUNERARY PRACTICES that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death (the afterlife). These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body , casting magic spells , and burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the Egyptian afterlife . The ancient Egyptian burial process evolved over time as old customs were discarded and new ones adopted, but several important elements of the process persisted. Though specific details changed over time, the preparation of the body, the magic rituals, and grave goods were all essential parts of a proper Egyptian funeral. There were many different gods to prepare for. The ancient Egyptians believed that each god would separately judge the deceased before he could enter the afterlife
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Ajita Kesakambali
AJITA KESAKAMBALI (Chinese : 無勝髮褐; pinyin : Wúshèng Fàhè) was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC. He is considered to be the first known proponent of Indian materialism . He was probably a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira
Mahavira
. It has frequently been noted that the doctrines of the Lokayata school were considerably drawn from Ajita's teachings. CONTENTS* 1 Philosophy * 1.1 From Buddhist sources * 1.2 Modern interpretations * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References PHILOSOPHYLike those of Lokayatins , nothing survives of Ajita's teachings in script, except some scattered references made by his opponents for the sake of refutation. Thus, due to the nature of these references, the basic framework of his philosophy has to be derived by filtering out obscure legends associated with him
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Eighteenth Dynasty Of Egypt
The EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY OF EGYPT (notated DYNASTY XVIII, alternatively 18TH DYNASTY or DYNASTY 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs , including Tutankhamun , whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. This dynasty is also known as the THUTMOSID DYNASTY for the four pharaohs named Thutmosis . Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
(c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(c. 1353–1336 BC), the "heretic pharaoh", with his queen , Nefertiti . Dynasty XVIII is the first of the three dynasties of the Egyptian New Kingdom , the period in which ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power
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