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Hedonism
Hedonism
Hedonism
is a school of thought that argues that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the aim of human life.[1] A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain), but when having finally gained that pleasure, either through intrinsic or extrinsic goods, happiness remains stationary. Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is also the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus
Aristippus
of Cyrene, a student of Socrates
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Ancient Egyptian Burial Customs
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death (the afterlife). These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting magic spells, and burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the Egyptian afterlife.[1][2] The ancient Egyptian burial process evolved over time as old customs were discarded and new ones adopted, but several important elements of the process persisted. Though specific details changed over time, the preparation of the body, the magic rituals, and grave goods were all essential parts of a proper Egyptian funeral. There were many different gods to prepare for
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-ism
-ism is a suffix in many English words, originally derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
suffix -ισμός (-ismós), and reaching English through the Latin
Latin
-ismus, and the French -isme.[1] It is often used in philosophy to define specific ideologies, and, as such, at times it is used as a noun in its own right when referring to a broad range of ideologies in a general sense.[2] The suffix "-ism" is neutral[citation needed] and therefore bears no connotations associated with any of the many ideologies it identifies; such determinations can only be informed by public opinion regarding specific ideologies. The concept of an -ism may resemble that of a grand narrative.[3]Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingHistory[edit] The first recorded usage of the suffix ism as a separate word in its own right was in 1680
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Pain
Pain
Pain
is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage";[1] however, due to it being a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge
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Sensation (psychology)
Sensation is the body's detection of external or internal stimulation (e.g., eyes detecting light waves, ears detecting sound waves). Perception
Perception
utilizes the brain to make sense of the stimulation (e.g., seeing a chair, hearing a guitar). Sensation involves three steps:Sensory receptors detect stimuli. Sensory stimuli are transduced into electrical impulses (action potentials) to be decoded by the brain. Electrical impulses move along neural pathways to specific parts of the brain wherein the impulses are decoded into useful information (perception).For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors – which are sensory receptors in the skin – register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction
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Intrinsic Value (ethics)
Instrumental and intrinsic value are technical labels for two poles of an ancient dichotomy. People seem to reason differently about what they ought to do, seeking legitimate ends, and what they are able to do, seeking efficient means. When reasoning about ends, they apply the criterion intrinsic value. It identifies legitimate rules of behavior, such as the Ten Commandments and the Second Amendment to the U.S. constitution. When reasoning about means they apply the criterion instrumental value. It identifies efficient tools, such as scientific and technological theories. Few question the existence of these two criteria, but their relative authority is in constant dispute. This article explains the meaning of and disputes about these two criteria for judging means and ends. Evidence is drawn from the work of four scholars
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Socrates
Socrates
Socrates
(/ˈsɒkrətiːz/;[2] Ancient Greek: Σωκρᾰ́της, translit. Sōkrátēs, [sɔːkrátɛːs]; c. 470 – 399 BC)[3][4] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher,[5][6] of the Western ethical tradition of thought.[7][8][9] An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon. Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos
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Pierre Gassendi
Pierre Gassendi
Pierre Gassendi
(French: [gasɑ̃di]; also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.[1][2][3] While he held a church position in south-east France, he also spent much time in Paris, where he was a leader of a group of free-thinking intellectuals. He was also an active observational scientist, publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631. The lunar crater Gassendi is named after him. He wrote numerous philosophical works, and some of the positions he worked out are considered significant, finding a way between skepticism and dogmatism. Richard Popkin indicates that Gassendi was one of the first thinkers to formulate the modern "scientific outlook", of moderated skepticism and empiricism. He clashed with his contemporary Descartes
Descartes
on the possibility of certain knowledge
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Hedonophobia
Hedonophobia is an excessive fear or aversion to obtaining pleasure.[1] The purported background of some such associated feelings may be due to an egalitarian-related sentiment, whereby one feels a sense of solidarity with individuals in the lowest Human Development Index countries.[2] For others, a recurring thought that some things are too good to be true has resulted in an ingrainedness that they are not entitled to feel too good.[3] The condition is relatively rare.[4] Sometimes, it can be triggered by a religious upbringing wherein asceticism is propounded.[5] Hedonophobia is formally defined as the fear of experiencing pleasure. 'Hedon' or 'hedone' comes from ancient Greek, meaning 'pleasure' + fear: 'phobia'. Hedonophobia is the inability to enjoy pleasurable experiences, and is often a persistent malady. Diagnosis of the condition is usually related to the age of 'maturity' in each country where the syndrome exists
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Epic Of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
(/ˈɡɪlɡəˌmɛʃ/)[1] is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh (Sumerian for "Gilgamesh"), king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
(c. 2100 BC). These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown")
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Siduri
Siduri
Siduri
is a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh. She is an "alewife", a wise female divinity associated with fermentation (specifically beer[1] and wine[2]). Role in the Epic of Gilgamesh[edit] In the earlier Old Babylonian version of the Epic, she attempts to dissuade Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
in his quest for immortality, urging him to be content with the simple pleasures of life.[3][4] In the later Akkadian (also referred to as the "standard") version of the Epic, Siduri's role is somewhat less important. The above quotation is omitted, and it is left to the flood hero Utnapishtim (the Mesopotamian precursor of Noah) to discuss issues of life and death. Siduri, nonetheless, has a long conversation with Gilgamesh, who boasts of his exploits and is forced to explain why his appearance is so haggard
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Harper's Songs
Harper's Songs are ancient Egyptian texts that originated in tomb inscriptions of the Middle Kingdom (but found on papyrus texts until the Papyrus Harris 500 of the New Kingdom) which in the main praise life after death and were often used in funerary contexts. These songs display varying degrees of hope in an afterlife that range from the skeptical through to the more traditional expressions of confidence.[3] These texts are accompanied by drawings of blind harpists and are therefore thought to have been sung.[1] Thematically they have been compared with The Immortality of Writers in their expression of rational skepticism.[4]Contents1 Background 2 Middle Kingdom 3 New Kingdom 4 Reference Works 5 NotesBackground[edit] The distinction between songs, hymns and poetry in Ancient Egyptian texts is not always clear. The convention is to treat as songs those poetic texts which are depicted with musical instruments
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Eighteenth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
(notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter
Howard Carter
in 1922. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid
Thutmosid
Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
(c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(c
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