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Hebrides
The Hebrides
Hebrides
(/ˈhɛbrɪdiːz/; Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall, pronounced [ĩːʃə gau̯l̪ˠ]; Old Norse: Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic, and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse, and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times. The Hebrides
Hebrides
are the source of much of Scottish Gaelic literature
Scottish Gaelic literature
and Gaelic music
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Gaelic Music
Gaelic music (Irish: Ceol Gaelach, Scottish Gaelic: Ceòl Gàidhealach) is an umbrella term for the folk music of Ireland
Ireland
(see Irish folk music) and of the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
(see Scottish folk music). It has also been used for any music written in the Gaelic languages of Irish and Scottish Gaelic
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Igneous Rock
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Paleogene
The Paleogene (/ˈpæliədʒiːn, ˈpeɪliə-/; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Geology
Geology
Geology
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure
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Collins Encyclopedia Of Scotland
Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland
Scotland
is a reference work published by Harper Collins, edited by the husband and wife team, John and Julia Keay.Contents1 History 2 Statistics 3 Articles 4 Second edition 5 References 6 See alsoHistory[edit] Scots had provided the impetus for a number of well-known references works, Chambers Dictionary and Encyclopædia Britannica[1][2] amongst them (the latter still uses a Scottish thistle as a logo), but hitherto there had been no general purpose Scottish encyclopaedia. Statistics[edit] The encyclopaedia took seven years to compile and has appeared in two editions. The first edition, published in 1994, contained about a million words, nearly five hundred illustrations, and had 126 contributors, ranging from Derick Thomson to David Steel, from Alan Bold to Neil MacCormick and from Joy Hendry to Sir William Macpherson of Cluny
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Quaternary Glaciation
The Quaternary
Quaternary
glaciation, also known as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glaciation or the current ice age, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary
Quaternary
period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.[1] During this period, ice sheets expanded, notably from out of Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets occurred elsewhere (for example, the Laurentide ice sheet). The major effects of the ice age were the erosion of land and the deposition of material, both over large parts of the continents; the modification of river systems; the creation of millions of lakes, changes in sea level, the development of pluvial lakes far from the ice margins, the isostatic adjustment of the earth's crust, flooding, and abnormal winds
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Crofting
Crofting
Crofting
is a form of land tenure[1] and small-scale food production particular to the Scottish Highlands, the islands of Scotland, and formerly on the Isle of Man.[2] Within the 19th century townships, individual crofts are established on the better land, and a large area of poorer-quality hill ground is shared by all the crofters of the township for grazing of their livestock.[3]Contents1 Practice 2 Requirements 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPractice[edit] Crofting
Crofting
is a traditional social system in Scotland defined by small-scale food production. Crofting
Crofting
is characterised by its common working communities, or "townships". Individual crofts are typically established on 2–5 hectares (5–12 1⁄2 acres) of in-bye[4] for better quality forage, arable and vegetable production
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Renewable Energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy
is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3] Based on REN21's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass
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Scottish Gaelic Literature
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
literature refers to literature composed in the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
language, a member of the Goidelic
Goidelic
branch of Celtic languages, along with Irish and Manx.Contents1 Middle Ages1.1 Early Middle Ages 1.2 High Middle Ages 1.3 Late Middle Ages2 Early Modern Era 3 Eighteenth century3.1 The Ossian
Ossian
of James Macpherson 3.2 Bible
Bible
translation4 Nineteenth century 5 Twentieth century 6 Today 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksMiddle Ages[edit] See also: Scottish literature
Scottish literature
in the Middle Ages Early Middle Ages[edit] In early Middle Ages what is now Scotland was culturally and politically divided
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Prehistoric
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but writing was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even later. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently. Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
and ancient Egypt were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron
Iron
Age
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Celtic Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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