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Heavy Cake
HEAVY CAKE or HEVVA CAKE (Cornish : Hevva) is a cake made from flour , lard , butter , milk , sugar and raisins that originated in Cornwall . Its name is derived from the pilchard industry in Cornwall
Cornwall
prior to the 20th century when a 'huer ' (cliff top lookout) helped locate shoals of fish. The huer would shout 'Hevva!, Hevva!' to alert the boats to the location of the pilchard shoals. Cornish tradition states that Hevva cake was baked by the huers on their return to their homes, the cake being ready by the time the crews returned to land. The cakes are about 1/2", with a criss-cross pattern scored across the top, representing the fishing nets. REFERENCES * ^ "Seven Traditional Foods of Cornwall
Cornwall
- Cornish Cuisine Guide". Anglotopia.net. 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2014-03-16. * ^ "Pin by UK Beach Days on Fishing History and Heritage UK". Pinterest. Retrieved 2014-03-16
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Raisin
A RAISIN is a dried grape . Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking , and brewing . In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Ireland , New Zealand
New Zealand
, and Australia
Australia
, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with "sultana " being a golden-colored dried grape, and "currant " being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Pilchard
"SARDINE" and "PILCHARD" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish within the herring family of Clupeidae
Clupeidae
. The term sardine was first used in English during the early 15th century and may come from the Mediterranean island of Sardinia
Sardinia
, around which sardines were once abundant. The terms "sardine" and "pilchard" are not precise, and what is meant depends on the region. The United Kingdom's Sea Fish Industry Authority , for example, classifies sardines as young pilchards. One criterion suggests fish shorter in length than 15 cm (6 in) are sardines, and larger fish are pilchards
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Huer
In English fishing customs, a CONDER, also called a HUER or BULKER, was a person who stood on high places near the sea coast , in times of herring -fishing, to signal to the fishers which way the shoal of herrings or pilchards passed—their course being more discernible to those who stand on high cliffs, due to the blue color they cause in the water, than to those aboard vessels. In Cornwall huers helped locate shoals of fish. The huer would shout 'Hevva!, Hevva!' to alert the boats to the location of the pilchard shoals. The term was also used to refer to the raised location where a conder stood. REFERENCES * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chambers, Ephraim , ed. (1728). "article name needed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (first ed.). James and John Knapton, et al. * "Conder". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989. This fishing -related article is a stub
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Panforte
PANFORTE is a traditional chewy Italian dessert containing fruits and nuts. It is similar to a florentine but much thicker and larger, or a little like a Lebkuchen . It may date back to 13th century Siena
Siena
, in Italy's Tuscany
Tuscany
region. Documents from 1205 show that panforte was paid to the monks and nuns of a local monastery as a tax or tithe which was due on the seventh of February that year. Literally, panforte means "strong bread" which refers to the spicy flavour. The original name of panforte was "panpepato " (peppered bread), due to the strong pepper used. There are references to the Crusaders
Crusaders
carrying panforte, a durable confection, with them on their quests, and to the use of panforte in surviving sieges. The process of making panforte is fairly simple
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products
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Cornish Language
CORNISH (Kernowek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language . The last first language native speakers died in the late 18th century . There are currently efforts being made to revive the language which is considered by some people to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Cornish is currently a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , and has a growing number of second language speakers. Along with Welsh and Breton , Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language
English language
came to dominate
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Butter
BUTTER is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk . It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking , such as baking , sauce making, and pan frying . Butter consists of butterfat , milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter
Butter
may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter . Most frequently made from cows ' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals , including sheep , goats , buffalo , and yaks . Salt such as dairy salt , flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee , which is almost entirely butterfat
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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Lard
LARD is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high proportion of adipose tissue . It can be rendered by steaming it or boiling it in water and then separating the insoluble fat from the water, or by the use of dry heat. It is a semi-soft white fat with a high saturated fatty acid content and no transfats. Refined lard is usually sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Lard
Lard
is commonly used in many cuisines around the world as a cooking fat or shortening , or as a spread similar to butter . It is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés and fillings, and it is particularly favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it brings to the product. Its use in western contemporary cuisine has diminished with the increased popularity of vegetable oils, but many contemporary cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain select uses
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Flour
FLOUR is a substance, generally a powder , made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods . Cereal
Cereal
flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for many cultures, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries . While wheat is the most common base for flour, maize flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye
Rye
flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe
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Cornwall
CORNWALL (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːlˌ -wəl/ , locally /ˈkɔːnwɔːl, -wəl/ ; Cornish : Kernow ) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England
England
within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea , to the south by the English Channel , and to the east by the county of Devon
Devon
, over the River Tamar . Cornwall
Cornwall
has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi). The administrative centre , and only city in Cornwall, is Truro , although the town of Falmouth has the largest population. Cornwall
Cornwall
forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall
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Apple Cake
APPLE CAKE is a popular dessert produced with the main ingredient of apples . Such a cake is made through the process of slicing this sweet fruit to add fragrance to a plain cake base. Traditional apple cakes go a step further by including various spices such as nutmeg or cinnamon , which give a unique flavour. Upon the addition of spices the batter can also be accompanied by crushed nuts , the most popular being walnuts and almonds . DORSET APPLE CAKE, DEVON APPLE CAKE and SOMERSET APPLE CAKE are traditional forms of this cake, respectively from Dorset
Dorset
, Devon
Devon
and Somerset
Somerset
, England
England
. They may include apple juices local to these counties as part of their recipes, but are not necessary. Apples are also used in other cakes, including chocolate cake , where their water-retention can help a normally-dry cake to stay moist
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Avocado Cake
AVOCADO CAKE is a cake prepared using avocado as a primary ingredient, together with other typical cake ingredients. The avocados can be mashed, and may be used as an ingredient in cake batter , in cake toppings and alone atop a cake. Cake variations include raw avocado cake, avocado brownies and avocado cheesecake . Raw, uncooked versions of avocado cake can be high in vitamin E and essential fatty acids , which are derived from avocado. Avocado-based cake toppings include avocado fool and avocado crazy
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