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Healthcare In Iran
For health issues in Iran
Iran
see Health in Iran . HEALTHCARE IN IRAN is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and NGOs . The healthcare and medical sector's market value in Iran
Iran
was almost US $24 billion in 2002 and is forecast to rise to US $96 billion in 2017. With a population of 80 million (2017), Iran
Iran
is one of the most populous countries in the Middle East. The country faces the common problem of other young demographic nations in the region, which is keeping pace with growth of an already huge demand for various public services. The young population will soon be old enough to start new families, which will boost the population growth rate and subsequently the need for public health infrastructures and services
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Chronic (medicine)
A CHRONIC CONDITION is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis , asthma , cancer , COPD
COPD
, diabetes and viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
. In medicine , the opposite of chronic is acute . A chronic course is further distinguished from a recurrent course; recurrent diseases relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between. The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are separated by their non-infectious causes. In contrast, some chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, are caused by transmissible infections. In the United States 25% of adults have at least two chronic conditions
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Non-communicable Disease
A NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible ). NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly. Sometimes, NCDs result in rapid deaths such as seen in certain diseases such as autoimmune diseases , heart diseases , stroke , cancers , diabetes , chronic kidney disease , osteoporosis , Alzheimer\'s disease , cataracts , and others. While sometimes referred to as synonymous with "chronic diseases ", NCDs are distinguished only by their non-infectious cause, not necessarily by their duration, though some chronic diseases of long duration may be caused by infections . Chronic diseases require chronic care management , as do all diseases that are slow to develop and of long duration. NCDs are the leading cause of death globally. In 2012, they caused 68% of all deaths (38 million) up from 60% in 2000
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Aging
AGEING or AGING (see spelling differences ), is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal . In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence ) or to the population of a species (population ageing ). In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical , psychological , and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes
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Information Technology
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) is the application of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data , or information , often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications". The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware , software , electronics , semiconductors , internet , telecom equipment , and e-commerce
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Death
DEATH is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism . Phenomena which commonly bring about death include senescence , predation , malnutrition , disease , suicide , homicide , starvation , dehydration , and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal injury . In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death
Death
– particularly the death of humans – has commonly been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death , necrophobia , anxiety , sorrow , grief , emotional pain , depression , sympathy , compassion , solitude , or saudade . Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife , and also hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin
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Provinces Of Iran
IRAN is subdivided into thirty one provinces (Persian : استان‎ Ostān, plural استان‌ها Ostānhā), each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: مرکز, markaz ) of that province. The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General
Governor-General
(Persian: استاندار Ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior subject to approval of the cabinet . CONTENTS * 1 Modern history * 2 Information * 3 Current provinces * 4 See also * 5 References and notes * 6 External links MODERN HISTORY Iran
Iran
has held its modern territory since the second half of the 19th century ( Treaty of Paris (1857) )
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Higher Education In Iran
Iran has a large network of private , public , and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. State-run universities of Iran are under the direct supervision of Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (for non-medical universities) and Ministry of Health and Medical Education (for medical schools)
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Tehran
TEHRAN (Persian : تهران‎ Tehrân, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran Province . With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in its larger metropolitan area , Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia
Asia
, and it has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East
Middle East
. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era , part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages , a prominent Median city. It was subject to destruction following the Arab , Turkic , and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran
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Availability
In reliability theory and reliability engineering , the term AVAILABILITY has the following meanings: * The degree to which a system , subsystem or equipment is in a specified operable and committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, i.e. a random, time. Simply put, availability is the proportion of time a system is in a functioning condition. This is often described as a MISSION CAPABLE RATE. Mathematically, this is expressed as 100% minus unavailability . * The ratio of (a) the total time a functional unit is capable of being used during a given interval to (b) the length of the interval.For example, a unit that is capable of being used 100 hours per week (168 hours) would have an availability of 100/168. However, typical availability values are specified in decimal (such as 0.9998). In high availability applications, a metric known as nines , corresponding to the number of nines following the decimal point, is used
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Azerbaijan
AZERBAIJAN (/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn, ˌɑːzər-, -ˈdʒæn/ A(H)Z-ər-by-JA(H)N ; Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan ), officially the REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia
Eurasia
at the crossroads of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia
Western Asia
. It is bound by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bound by Armenia
Armenia
to the north and east, Iran
Iran
to the south and west, and has an 11 km long border with Turkey
Turkey
in the north west
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates : 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60 Turkmenistan Türkmenistan (Turkmen ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan Location of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(red) Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Turkmen Inter-ethnic
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Essential Drugs
ESSENTIAL MEDICINES, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population". These are the medications to which people should have access at all times in sufficient amounts. The prices should be at generally affordable levels. The WHO has published a model list of essential medicines. Each country is encouraged to prepare their own lists taking into consideration local priorities. Over 150 countries have published an official essential medicines list. The essential medicines list enables health authorities, especially in developing countries, to optimize pharmaceutical resources. The WHO List contains a core list and a complementary list. The core list presents a list of minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system, listing the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions
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Vaccines
A VACCINE is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease . A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen ), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination . The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine , the HPV vaccine , and the chicken pox vaccine
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Opioids
OPIOIDS are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine -like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief , including anesthesia . Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea , treating addiction, reversing opioid overdose , suppressing cough, and suppressing opioid induced constipation. Extremely strong opioids are approved only for veterinary use such as immobilizing large mammals. Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal . The side effects of opioids may include itchiness , sedation , nausea , respiratory depression , constipation , and euphoria . Tolerance and dependence will develop with continuous use, requiring increasing doses and leading to a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation
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