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Hazard
A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target. The terms "hazard" and "risk" are often used interchangeably. However, in terms of risk assessment, these are two very distinct terms. A hazard is any agent that can cause harm or damage to humans, property, or the environment. Risk
Risk
is defined as the probability that exposure to a hazard will lead to a negative consequence, or more simply, a hazard poses no risk if there is no exposure to that hazard. Hazards can be dormant or potential, with only a theoretical probability of harm. An event that is caused by interaction with a hazard is called an incident. The likely severity of the undesirable consequences of an incident associated with a hazard, combined with the probability of this occurring, constitute the associated risk. If there is no possibility of a hazard contributing towards an incident, there is no risk. Hazards can be classified as different types in several ways
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli
Bacillus coli
communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/;[1] also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia
Escherichia
that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).[2][3] Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.[4][5] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[6] and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship.[7][8] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter
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Virus
I: ds DNA
DNA
viruses II: ss DNA
DNA
viruses III: ds RNA
RNA
viruses IV: (+)ss RNA
RNA
viruses V: (−)ss RNA
RNA
viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT virusesA virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
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Hypodermic Needles
A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps,[1] is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end. It is commonly used with a syringe, a hand-operated device with a plunger, to inject substances into the body (e.g., saline solution, solutions containing various drugs or liquid medicines) or extract fluids from the body (e.g., blood). They are used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood from a vein in venipuncture. Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or treating shock. A hypodermic needle is used for rapid delivery of liquids, or when the injected substance cannot be ingested, either because it would not be absorbed (as with insulin), or because it would harm the liver
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Incident Management
An incident is an event that could lead to loss of, or disruption to, an organization's operations, services or functions. Incident management (IcM) is a term describing the activities of an organization to identify, analyze, and correct hazards to prevent a future re-occurrence
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Salmonella
S. bongori S. enterica Salmonella
Salmonella
is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella
Salmonella
are Salmonella enterica
Salmonella enterica
and Salmonella
Salmonella
bongori. Salmonella enterica
Salmonella enterica
is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies[1] that include over 2,500 serotypes. Salmonella
Salmonella
species are non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with cell diameters between about 0.7 and 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and peritrichous flagella (all around the cell body).[2] They are chemotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources
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Microorganisms
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Food And Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States
United States
Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States
United States
federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed[4] and veterinary products
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Parasite
In biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.[1] The entomologist E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson
has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".[2] Parasites include protozoa such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, and mosquitoes; plants such as mistletoe and dodder; and fungi such as honey fungus and ringworm
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Fungi
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Campylobacter
C. avium C. butzleri C. canadensis C. cinaedi C. coli C. concisus C. corcagiensis C. cryaerophilus C. cuniculorum C. curvus C. fennelliae C. fetus C. gracilis C. helveticus C. hominis C. hyoilei C. hyointestinalis C. insulaenigrae C. jejuni C. lanienae C. lari C. mucosalis C. mustelae C. nitrofigilis C. peloridis C. pylori C. rectus C. showae C. sputorum C. subantarcticus C. upsaliensis C. ureolyticus C. volucris Campylobacter
Campylobacter
(meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.[1] Campylobacter
Campylobacter
typically appear comma or s-shaped and motile.[1] Most Campylobacter
Campylobacter
species can cause disease and can infect humans and other animals. The bacterium's main reservoir is poultry;[2] humans can contract the disease from eating food contaminated with Campylobacter
Campylobacter
species
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Food Storage
Food
Food
storage allows food to be eaten for some time (typically weeks to months) after harvest rather than solely immediately. It is both a traditional domestic skill and, in the form of food logistics, an important industrial and commercial activity. Food
Food
preservation, storage, and transport, including timely delivery to consumers, are important to food security, especially for the majority of people throughout the world who rely on others to produce their food. Food
Food
is stored by almost every human society and by many animals
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Cooking
Cooking
Cooking
or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption with or without the use of fire or heat. Cooking
Cooking
techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. The ways or types of cooking also depend on the skill and type of training an individual cook has. Cooking
Cooking
is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking
Cooking
can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, such as in ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice. Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans
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