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Hatshepsut
Thutmose III Queen consort
Queen consort
of EgyptTenure c. 1493–1479 BC (disputed)Royal titularyPrenomen  (Praenomen)Maatkare[1] Truth Ma'at
Ma'at
is the Ka of ReNomenKhnumt- Amun
Amun
Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies,,Horus nameWesretkau [1] Mighty of KasNebty nameWadjrenput[1] Flourishing of yearsGolden HorusNetjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance.Consort Thutmose IIChildren NeferureFather Thutmose IMother AhmoseBorn c. 1507 BC[2][3]Died 1458 BC (aged 50)Burial KV20
KV20
(possibly re-interred in KV60[3])Monuments Temple of Karnak, Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Speos Artemidos Chapelle Rouge Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
(/hætˈʃɛpsʊt/;[4] also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥ3.t-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies";[5] 1507–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
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Byblos
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (Arabic: جبيل‎  Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [ʒbejl]; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
Governorate, Lebanon
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Egyptian Language
The Egyptian language
Egyptian language
was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian
stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.[2] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Lordosis
Lordosis
Lordosis
refers to the normal inward lordotic curvature of the lumbar and cervical regions of the human spine.[1] The normal outward (convex) curvature in the thoracic and sacral regions is termed kyphosis or kyphotic. The term comes from the Greek lordōsis, from lordos ("bent backward").[2] Lordosis
Lordosis
in the human spine makes it easier for humans to bring the bulk of their mass over the pelvis. This allows for a much more efficient walking gait than that of other primates, whose inflexible spines cause them to resort to an inefficient forward leaning "bent-knee, bent-waist" gait
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Obesity
Obesity
Obesity
is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.[1] People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 7002294199500000000♠30 kg/m2, with the range 7002245166250000000♠25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight.[1] Some East Asian countries use lower values.[8]
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Marc Armand Ruffer
Sir Marc Armand Ruffer CMG (1859,[citation needed][1] Lyon,France – 15 April 1917, Greece) was an Anglo-German experimental pathologist and bacteriologist. He is considered a pioneer of modern paleopathology.Contents1 Family 2 Education 3 Career 4 ReferencesFamily[edit] He was the son of German banker Baron Alphonse Jacques Ruffer and his German wife Caroline, who were resident in Switzerland at time of his own death.[2] Ruffer married Alice Mary Greenfield in 1890 and had three children. Education[edit] He studied at Brasenose College, Oxford, University College London and the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Career[edit] In 1891 he was appointed the first director of the British Institute of Preventive Medicine, latterly the Lister Institute. Moving to Egypt for health reasons, Ruffer was appointed a professor of bacteriology at The Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University in 1896, later taking roles on committees dealing with health, disease, and sanitation
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Steatopygia
Steatopygia is the state of having substantial levels of tissue on the buttocks and thighs. This build is not confined to the gluteal regions, but extends to the outside and front of the thighs, and tapers to the knee producing a curvaceous figure. The term is from the Greek στέαρ stéar meaning "tallow" and πυγή pugḗ meaning "rump".[1][2][3][4] History[edit] Steatopygia is a genetic characteristic found in women of sub-Saharan African origin, most notably (but not solely) among the Khoisan
Khoisan
of southern Africa and Pygmies
Pygmies
of central Africa. It has also been observed among the Andamanese people, such as the Onge tribe, in the Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
of the Indian Ocean. In most populations of Homo sapiens, females are more likely than their male counterparts to accumulate adipose tissue in the buttock region
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Myrrh
Myrrh
Myrrh
(/mɜːr/; from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.[1] Myrrh
Myrrh
resin has been used throughout history as a perfume, incense, and medicine. Myrrh
Myrrh
mixed with wine can also be ingested.Contents1 Extraction and production 2 Etymology 3 Attributed medicinal properties3.1 Medicine 3.2 Traditional Chinese medicine 3.3 Ayurvedic medicine4 Religious ritual4.1 In Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and Punt 4.2 In the Hebrew Bible 4.3 In ancient Nabataea 4.4 In the New Testament 4.5 In contemporary Christianity 4.6 In Islam5 Ancient myrrh 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksExtraction and production[edit] When a tree's wound penetrates through the bark and into the sapwood, the tree bleeds a resin
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Second Intermediate Period
The Second Intermediate Period
Second Intermediate Period
marks a period when Ancient Egypt
Egypt
fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos
Hyksos
made their appearance in Egypt
Egypt
and whose reign comprised the 15th dynasty.Contents1 End of the Middle Kingdom 2 15th dynasty 3 16th dynasty 4 Abydos dynasty 5 17th dynasty 6 References 7 BibliographyEnd of the Middle Kingdom[edit] The 12th Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
came to an end at the end of the 19th century BC with the death of Queen Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu
(1806–1802 BC).[1] Apparently she had no heirs, causing the 12th dynasty to come to a sudden end, and, with it, the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom; it was succeeded by the much weaker 13th Dynasty
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Hyksos
The Hyksos
The Hyksos
(/ˈhɪksɒs/ or /ˈhɪksoʊz/;[3] Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ancient Greek: Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia,[4] who settled in the eastern Nile Delta
Nile Delta
some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos
Hyksos
led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
and initiated the Second Intermediate Period
Second Intermediate Period
of Egypt.[5] In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" – which is often used for the Hyksos
Hyksos
– may refer to any people native to areas east of Egypt. Immigration by Canaanite populations preceded the Hyksos. Canaanites first appeared in Egypt
Egypt
at the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC or c
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Trade Route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries, which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes
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God's Wife
God's Wife
God's Wife
(Egyptian ḥmt nṯr) is a title which was often allocated to royal women during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. The term indicates an inherited sacral duty, in which the role of "God's Wife" passed from mother to daughter. The role could also exist among siblings, as in the case of the role of "God's Wife" being shared or passed by daughters of Ahmose-Nefertari, Satamun (I) and her sister, Ahmose-Merytamun.[1] Despite certain allegations found online, the role of "God's Wife" is not the same as the title " God's Wife
God's Wife
of Amun", which is a separate sacral title, involved in the "Divine Cycle" myth of the deity Amun.[2][3] Only two Eighteenth Dynasty queens held this title, Ahhotep I
Ahhotep I
and Ahmose-Nefertari.[4] References[edit]^ Troy, L. 1986. Patterns of Queenship: in ancient Egyptian myth and history: 98. BOREAS14. Uppsala: ACTA Universitatis Upsaliensis ^ Gitton, M. 1984
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Julius Africanus
Julius Africanus was a celebrated orator in the reign of Nero,[1] and seems to have been the son of the Julius Africanus, of the Gallic state of the Santoni, who was condemned by Tiberius in 32 AD.[2] Quintilian, who had heard Julius Africanus, spoke of him and Domitius Afer as the best orators of their time. The eloquence of Africanus was chiefly characterized by vehemence and energy.[3][4] Pliny the Younger mentions a grandson of this Julius Africanus, who was also an advocate and was opposed to him upon one occasion.[5] He was consul suffectus in 108 AD.[citation needed] There is a persistent belief in some quarters that Africanus was actually an African. However, being the son of a Gallic chief he was a member of a Celtic tribe.[citation needed] This confusion probably arises from an incorrect belief that the Roman cognomen Africanus means from Africa (i.e
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Josephus
Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2][page needed] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו‬, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4] was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian
Vespasian
after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus
Josephus
claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian
Vespasian
becoming Emperor of Rome
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Neithhotep
Neithhotep
Neithhotep
or Neith-hotep was an Ancient Egyptian queen consort living and ruling during the early 1st dynasty. She was once thought to be a male ruler: Her outstandingly large mastaba and the royal serekh ensnaring her name on several seal impressions previously led Egyptologists and Historians to the erroneous belief that she may have been an unknown king.[2] As the understanding of early Egyptian writings developed, scholars learned that Neithhotep
Neithhotep
was in fact a woman of extraordinary rank; she was subsequently considered to be the wife of unified Egypt's first pharaoh, Narmer, and the mother of Hor-Aha.[2] More recent discoveries suggest that Neithhotep
Neithhotep
might have instead been a spouse of Hor-Aha, and the mother and co-regent of successive ruler Djer
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James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted (/ˈbrɛstɪd/; August 27, 1865 – December 2, 1935) was an American archaeologist, Egyptologist, and historian. After completing his PhD at the University of Berlin in 1894, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago. In 1901 he became director of the Haskell Oriental Museum at the university, where he continued to concentrate on Egypt. In 1905 Breasted was promoted to full professor, and held the first chair in Egyptology and Oriental History in the United States. In 1919 he became the founder of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, a center for interdisciplinary study of ancient civilizations
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