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Harvard Mark II
The Harvard Mark II was an electromechanical computer built under the direction of Howard Aiken
Howard Aiken
and was finished in 1947. It was financed by the United States Navy. The Mark II was constructed with high-speed electromagnetic relays instead of electro-mechanical counters used in the Mark I, making it much faster than its predecessor. Its addition time was 0.125 seconds (8 Hz) and the multiplication time was 0.750 seconds. This was a factor of 2.6 faster for addition and a factor 8 faster for multiplication compared to the Mark I. It was the second machine (after the Bell Labs Relay Calculator) to have floating-point hardware. A unique feature of the Mark II is that it had built-in hardware for several functions such as the reciprocal, square root, logarithm, exponential, and some trigonometric functions
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Stored-program Computer
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.[1] Often the definition is extended with the requirement that the treatment of programs and data in memory be interchangeable or uniform.[2][3][4]Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Candidates for the first stored-program computer3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] A computer with a von Neumann architecture stores program data and instruction data in the same memory; a computer with a Harvard architecture has separate memories for storing program and data.[5][6] Both are stored-program designs. Stored-program computer is sometimes used as a synonym for von Neumann architecture,[7][8] however Professor
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Instruction Set
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer. It is also referred to as architecture or computer architecture. A realization of an ISA is called an implementation. An ISA permits multiple implementations that may vary in performance, physical size, and monetary cost (among other things); because the ISA serves as the interface between software and hardware. Software
Software
that has been written for an ISA can run on different implementations of the same ISA. This has enabled binary compatibility between different generations of computers to be easily achieved, and the development of computer families. Both of these developments have helped to lower the cost of computers and to increase their applicability. For these reasons, the ISA is one of the most important abstractions in computing today. An ISA defines everything a machine language programmer needs to know in order to program a computer
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Harvard Architecture
The Harvard architecture
Harvard architecture
is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data. The term originated from the Harvard Mark I
Harvard Mark I
relay-based computer, which stored instructions on punched tape (24 bits wide) and data in electro-mechanical counters. These early machines had data storage entirely contained within the central processing unit, and provided no access to the instruction storage as data
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Dahlgren, Virginia
Dahlgren is a census-designated place (CDP) in King George County, Virginia, United States. The population was 2,655 at the 2010 census, a large increase from the 997 reported in 2000.[3] The community is located within the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace American Viticultural Area winemaking appellation established by the United States government.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Infrastructure 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Since 1918, Dahlgren has been the site of a U.S. Naval base named for Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren. It was then the "U.S. Naval Proving Ground" but was renamed, after 1950, "U.S. Naval Weapons Laboratory", in 1974, the "Naval Surface Weapons Center","in 1987 the "Naval Surface Warfare Center", and around 1990, as the "U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD)". In 2006, it was renamed "Naval Support Activity-South Potomac (NSA-SP)", with NSWCDD becoming a tenant command of the base. The "U.S
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Howard Aiken
Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I
Harvard Mark I
computer.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Personal life 3 References 4 See also 5 External linksBiography[edit] Aiken studied at the University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
and later obtained his Ph.D. in physics at Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1939.[3][4] During this time, he encountered differential equations that he could only solve numerically. He envisioned an electro-mechanical computing device that could do much of the tedious work for him. This computer was originally called the ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) and later renamed Harvard Mark I
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Harvard Mark I
The IBM
IBM
Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard
Harvard
University’s staff,[1] was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II. One of the first programs to run on the Mark I was initiated on 29 March 1944[2] by John von Neumann. At that time, von Neumann was working on the Manhattan project, and needed to determine whether implosion was a viable choice to detonate the atomic bomb that would be used a year later. The Mark I also computed and printed mathematical tables, which had been the initial goal of British inventor Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
for his "analytical engine". The Mark I was disassembled in 1959, but portions of it are displayed in the Science Center as part of the Harvard
Harvard
Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments
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Harvard Mark IV
The Harvard Mark IV was an electronic stored-program computer built by Harvard University
Harvard University
under the supervision of Howard Aiken
Howard Aiken
for the United States Air Force. The computer was finished being built in 1952. It stayed at Harvard, where the Air Force used it extensively. The Mark IV was all electronic. The Mark IV used magnetic drum and had 200 registers of ferrite magnetic core memory (one of the first computers to do so). It separated the storage of data and instructions in what is known as the Harvard architecture. See also[edit]Harvard Mark I Harvard Mark II Harvard Mark III List of vacuum tube computers Howard Aiken Harvard (World War II advanced trainer aircraft)References[edit]A History of Computing Technology, Michael R. Williams, 1997, IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-8186-7739-2External links[edit]Mark IV at ComputerHistory.orgThis computer hardware article is a stub
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Harvard Mark III
The Harvard Mark III, also known as ADEC (for Aiken Dahlgren Electronic Calculator) was an early computer that was partially electronic and partially electromechanical. It was built at Harvard University under the supervision of Howard Aiken
Howard Aiken
for the US Navy.Contents1 Technical overview 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksTechnical overview[edit] The Mark III's word consisted of 16 bits. It used 5,000 vacuum tubes and 1,500 crystal diodes. It used magnetic drum memory of 4,350 words. Its addition time was 4,400 microseconds and the multiplication time was 13,200 microseconds (times include memory access time). Aiken boasted that the Mark III was the fastest electronic computer in the world. The Mark III used nine magnetic drums (one of the first computers to do so). One drum could contain 4,000 instructions and has an access time of 4,400 microseconds; thus it was a stored-program computer
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Harvard Mark II
The Harvard Mark II was an electromechanical computer built under the direction of Howard Aiken
Howard Aiken
and was finished in 1947. It was financed by the United States Navy. The Mark II was constructed with high-speed electromagnetic relays instead of electro-mechanical counters used in the Mark I, making it much faster than its predecessor. Its addition time was 0.125 seconds (8 Hz) and the multiplication time was 0.750 seconds. This was a factor of 2.6 faster for addition and a factor 8 faster for multiplication compared to the Mark I. It was the second machine (after the Bell Labs Relay Calculator) to have floating-point hardware. A unique feature of the Mark II is that it had built-in hardware for several functions such as the reciprocal, square root, logarithm, exponential, and some trigonometric functions
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