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Hartebeest
The HARTEBEEST (/ˈhɑːrtəˌbiːst/ ; Alcelaphus buselaphus), also known as KONGONI, is an African antelope . Eight subspecies have been described, including two sometimes considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m (3.3 ft) at the shoulder, and has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm (79 to 98 in). The weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg (220 to 440 lb). It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck, and pointed ears. Its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is generally short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the sandy brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swayne's hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender
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Savanna
A SAVANNA or SAVANNAH is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density. It is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests
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Mount Kenya
MOUNT KENYA is the highest mountain in Kenya
Kenya
and the second-highest in Africa
Africa
, after Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaro
. The highest peaks of the mountain are Batian (5,199 metres (17,057 ft)), Nelion (5,188 metres (17,021 ft)) and Point Lenana (4,985 metres (16,355 ft)). Mount Kenya
Kenya
is located in central Kenya, the heart of Kenya, about 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) south of the equator , around 150 kilometres (93 mi) north-northeast of the capital Nairobi
Nairobi
. Mount Kenya
Kenya
is the source of the name of the Republic of Kenya
Kenya
. Mount Kenya
Kenya
is a stratovolcano created approximately 3 million years after the opening of the East African rift . Before glaciation, it was 7,000 m (23,000 ft) high. It was covered by an ice cap for thousands of years
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Gestation
GESTATION is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals . It is typical for mammals , but also occurs for some non-mammals. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations ). The time interval of a gestation is called the gestation period . In human obstetrics , gestational age refers to the embryonic or fetal age plus two weeks. This is approximately the duration since the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) began. CONTENTS* 1 Mammals * 1.1 Humans * 2 Non-mammals * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MAMMALS Main article: Pregnancy (mammals) In mammals, pregnancy begins when a zygote (fertilized ovum) implants in the female's uterus and ends once the fetus leaves the uterus
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Sexual Maturity
SEXUAL MATURITY is the age or stage when an organism can reproduce . It is sometimes considered synonymous with adulthood . In humans , the process of sexual maturation is termed puberty . Most multicellular organisms are unable to sexually reproduce at birth (or germination), and depending on the species, it may be days, weeks, or years until their bodies are able to do so. Also, certain cues may cause the organism to become sexually mature. They may be external, such as drought, or internal, such as percentage of body fat (such internal cues are not to be confused with hormones which directly produce sexual maturity). Sexual maturity is brought about by a maturing of the reproductive organs and the production of gametes . It may also be accompanied by a growth spurt or other physical changes which distinguish the immature organism from its adult form. These are termed secondary sex characteristics , and often represent an increase in sexual dimorphism
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Martin Lichtenstein
MARTIN HINRICH CARL LICHTENSTEIN (10 January 1780 – 2 September 1857) was a German physician , explorer , botanist and zoologist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 Writings * 4 Literature * 5 References BIOGRAPHYBorn in Hamburg
Hamburg
, Lichtenstein was the son of Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein . He studied medicine at Jena and Helmstedt . Between 1802 and 1806 he travelled in southern Africa
Africa
, becoming the personal physician of the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
. In 1811 he published Reisen im südlichen Afrika : in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805, und 1806; as a result, he was appointed professor of zoology at the University of Berlin
University of Berlin
in 1811, and appointed director of the Berlin Zoological Museum in 1813
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Kongoni (operating System)
KONGONI is a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
that used the free version of the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
as distributed by the Linux-libre
Linux-libre
project. Development of the Kongoni project is currently dormant. Kongoni was a desktop oriented operating system with a strong belief in being free (as in freedom) and aimed to be easy to install, use and customize. Kongoni did not ship with, include or offer the ability to install any software not approved by the Free Software
Free Software
Foundation . Kongoni is the Shona word for Gnu , the same animal the GNU
GNU
Project takes its name from. The name was chosen as it represents the spirit and history of Kongoni, a Linux
Linux
operating system of African origin
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Antelope
An ANTELOPE is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae , encompassing those Old World
Old World
species that are not cattle , sheep , buffalo , bison , or goats ; even so, antelope are generally more deer -like than other bovids. A group of antelope is called a herd
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Subspecies
In biological classification , SUBSPECIES (abbreviated "SUBSP." or "SSP."; plural : "subspecies") is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species , or a taxonomic unit in that rank. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two (including any that are extinct). In zoology , under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology , under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , other infraspecific ranks , such as variety , may be named. In bacteriology and virology , under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature , there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides whether to recognize a subspecies or not
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Critically Endangered
A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. It's the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
for wild species . As of 2014, there are 2464 animal and 2104 plant species with this assessment, compared with 1998 levels of 854 and 909, respectively. As the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
does not consider a species extinct until extensive, targeted surveys have been conducted, species which are possibly extinct are still listed as critically endangered. IUCN maintains a list of "possibly extinct" CR(PE) and "possibly extinct in the wild" CR(PEW) species, modelled on categories used by BirdLife International to categorize these taxa
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Introduced Species
An INTRODUCED SPECIES (ALIEN SPECIES, EXOTIC SPECIES, NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIES, or NON-NATIVE SPECIES) is a species living outside its native distributional range , which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species . The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown
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Swahili Language
SWAHILI, also known as KISWAHILI (translation: coast language ), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people . It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and south-eastern Africa, including Tanzania
Tanzania
, Kenya
Kenya
, Uganda , Rwanda
Rwanda
, Burundi
Burundi
, Mozambique
Mozambique
, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Comorian , spoken in the Comoros
Comoros
Islands is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Swahili, though other authorities consider it a distinct language. Estimates of the total number of Swahili speakers vary widely, from 50 million to over 100 million. Swahili serves as a national language of four nations: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and the DRC
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Scientific Name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens . The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753
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Species Description
A SPECIES DESCRIPTION is a formal description of a newly discovered species , usually in the form of a scientific paper . Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously, or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name . Today, some 1.9 million species have been described and named, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist on Earth. Millions more have become extinct . It is customary for scientists to introduce all relevant new findings and research in a scientific manuscript, which is sent to other scientists for peer review
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