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Harbin Z-9
The Harbin Z-9
Harbin Z-9
( NATO reporting name "Haitun", Chinese: 海豚 for Dolphin[1]) is a Chinese military utility helicopter with civilian variants. It is a licensed variant of the French Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin, and is manufactured by Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation.Contents1 Design and development 2 Variants 3 Operators 4 Specifications (Z-9B) 5 Accident 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDesign and development[edit] The first Z-9 flew in 1981, and was built in China
China
from components supplied by Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
as part of a production patent bought on 15 October 1980.[2] On 16 January 1992, the indigenous variant Z-9B, constructed with 70% Chinese-made parts, flew successfully. The flight test was completed in November 1992 and the design was finalized a month later
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Bolivian Army
The Bolivian Army
Army
or Ejército Boliviano is the land forces component of the Armed Forces of Bolivia. The army consists of an average 31,500 men.Military flag of BoliviaBolivian Army
Army
stands guard at the entry control point of an Observation Point during training, Oct. 21, 2002. The purpose of the training is to prepare for the Field Training Exercise portion of Cabanas 2002 Chile, held in Fuerte Lautaro, Chile. Cabanas 2002 Chile is a multinational combined readiness training exercise centered around peacekeeping operational tasks
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HJ-9
The Hong Jian-9 (Chinese: 红箭-9; pinyin: Hóng Jiàn-9; literally: "Red Arrow-9") is an advanced, third-generation anti-tank missile system deployed by the People's Liberation Army. The missile was developed by China North Industries Corporation (Norinco), and one of the chief designers was Yang Chunming (杨春铭). It is similar in appearance to the Israeli MAPATS
MAPATS
(man portable anti-tank system), causing speculation about the link between the two missiles. It is also similar to the South African ZT3 Ingwe anti-tank missile. Like the MAPATS
MAPATS
and ZT3, the HJ-9
HJ-9
is guided by laser beam riding. The HJ-9
HJ-9
has a maximum range of 5.5 km (3.4 mi), and a minimum range of 100 m (110 yd). Claimed armor penetration is 1,200mm, which is greater than that of the HJ-8
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Night Vision Device
A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. The image may be a conversion to visible light of both visible light and near-infrared, while by convention detection of thermal infrared is denoted thermal imaging. The image produced is typically monochrome, e.g. shades of green. NVDs are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies, but are available to civilian users. The term usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs also include optical components such as a sacrificial lens,[1] or telescopic lenses or mirrors
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Infra-red
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Search And Rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue
(SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of terrain the search is conducted over. These include mountain rescue; ground search and rescue, including the use of search and rescue dogs; urban search and rescue in cities; combat search and rescue on the battlefield and air-sea rescue over water. International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) is a UN organization that promotes the exchange of information between national urban search and rescue organizations
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Anti-submarine Warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
(ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines. Successful anti-submarine warfare depends on a mix of sensor and weapon technology, training, and experience. Sophisticated sonar equipment for first detecting, then classifying, locating and tracking the target submarine is a key element of ASW. To destroy submarines both torpedos and naval mines are used, launched from air, surface and underwater platforms
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X-band
The X band
X band
is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in communication engineering, the frequency range of the X band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0 to 11.2 GHz[citation needed]. In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE
IEEE
at 8.0 to 12.0 GHz
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FLIR
Forward looking infrared
Forward looking infrared
(FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use a thermographic camera that senses infrared radiation.[1] The sensors installed in forward-looking infrared cameras—as well as those of other thermal imaging cameras—use detection of infrared radiation, typically emitted from a heat source (thermal radiation), to create an image assembled for video output. They can be used to help pilots and drivers steer their vehicles at night and in fog, or to detect warm objects against a cooler background. The wavelength of infrared that thermal imaging cameras detect is 3 to 12 μm, and differs significantly from that of night vision, which operates in the visible light and near-infrared ranges (0.4 to 1.0 μm).Contents1 Design 2 Properties 3 Origin of the term 4 History 5 Uses 6 Cost 7 Police actions 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDesign[edit]FLIR imagery from a U.S
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Helmet-mounted Display
A helmet-mounted display (HMD) is a device used in aircraft to project information to the pilot's eyes. Its scope is similar to that of head-up displays (HUD) on an aircrew's visor or reticle. An HMD provides the pilot with situation awareness, an enhanced image of the scene, and in military applications cue weapons systems, to the direction their head is pointing
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HJ-8
The HJ-8
HJ-8
or Hongjian-8 (Chinese: 红箭-8; pinyin: Hóng Jiàn-8; literally: "Red Arrow-8") is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
since the late 1980s.[5]Contents1 Development 2 Design2.1 Turret launch platform3 Variants 4 Combat use4.1 Bosnia 4.2 Syria 4.3 Iraq5 Operators 6 Specifications 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDevelopment[edit] In 1970, Chinese armoured corps first proposed to develop a successor to HJ-73
HJ-73
and this was later approved, designated as the AFT-8 or HJ-8. The missile was jointly developed by Research Institute 203 and 282nd Factory, but the program was interrupted by political turmoil. The key designers were Wang Xingzhi (王兴治) and Zhao Jiazheng (赵家铮), who developed the missile
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HJ-10
HJ-10 (Chinese: 红箭-10; pinyin: Hóng Jiàn-10; literally: "Red Arrow-10") is a series of Chinese anti-helicopter / anti-tank missiles, indigenously developed by Norinco
Norinco
for People's Liberation Army. The primary version of HJ-10 utilizes fiber-optic wire-guided technology similar to European Polyphem while the lighter version equips laser homing and millimeter wave radar seeker as the primary weapon of the attack helicopters.[1] HJ-10 can work both as land based anti-tank weapon as well as a Chinese equivalent of the AGM-114 Hellfire.Contents1 Development1.1 Background 1.2 History2 Design 3 Deployment 4 Variants4.1 AFT-10 4.2 AKD-10 4.3 BA-7 4.4 BA-9 4.5 AR-15 Operators 6 External links 7 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The development of the HJ-10 took more than two decades, equal to that of the WZ-10, the platform designed to carry the missile
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Anti-tank Missile
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles. ATGMs range in size from shoulder-launched weapons, which can be transported by a single soldier, to larger tripod-mounted weapons, which require a squad or team to transport and fire, to vehicle and aircraft mounted missile systems. The introduction to the modern battlefield of smaller, man-portable ATGMs with larger warheads has given infantry the ability to defeat light and medium tanks at great ranges, though main battle tanks (MBTs) using composite and reactive armors have proven to be resistant to smaller ATGMs.[1][2] Earlier infantry anti-tank weapons, such as anti-tank rifles, anti-tank rockets and magnetic anti-tank mines, had limited armor-penetration abilities and/or required a soldier to approach the target closely.Contents1 History 2 Countermeasures
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Anti-ship Missile
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and active radar homing. A good number of other anti-ship missiles use infrared homing to follow the heat that is emitted by a ship; it is also possible for anti-ship missiles to be guided by radio command all the way. The first anti-ship missiles, which were developed and built by Nazi Germany, used radio command guidance. These saw some success in the Mediterranean Theater in 1943–44, sinking or heavily damaging at least 31 ships with the Henschel Hs 293
Henschel Hs 293
and more than seven with the Fritz X, such as the Italian battleship Roma or the cruiser USS Savannah. A variant of the HS 293 had a TV transmitter on board
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TL-10
The TL-10 (Tian Long - 10) or Sky Dragon (天龙) - 10 is a light anti-ship missile unveiled in the Zhuhai Airshow in 2004 in China, and it is the Chinese equivalent of the French MM-15TT / AS-15TT light anti-ship missile developed by Aérospatiale.Contents1 History 2 Development 3 Design 4 FL-8 5 Kowsar 6 TL-1 7 Specification 8 Operators8.1 Current operators9 ReferencesHistory[edit] The development of the TL program appeared to have started in the mid-1990s and were originally identified as the FL-8 (TL-10) and FL-9 (TL-6) under China National Aero Technology Import & Export Company (CATIC). The program and missiles were officially revealed in the Zhuhai Airshow in 2004 by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). At the Zhuhai Airshow, two versions, TL-10A and TL-10B were revealed, A with the television seeker and the B with the radar seeker
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Air-to-surface Missile
An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea. There are also unpowered guided glide bombs not considered missiles. The two most common propulsion systems for air-to-surface missiles are rocket motors, usually with shorter range, and slower, longer-range jet engines. Some Soviet-designed air-to-surface missiles are powered by ramjets, giving them both long range and high speed. Guidance for air-to-surface missiles is typically via laser guidance, infrared guidance, optical guidance or via satellite guidance signals. The type of guidance depends on the type of target. Ships, for example, may be detected via passive radar or active radar homing, less effective against multiple, small, fast-moving land targets. There is some cross-over between air-to-surface missiles and surface-to-surface missiles
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