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Hans Frank
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer. After the invasion of Poland, Frank became Nazi Germany's chief jurist in the occupied Poland
Poland
"General Government" territory. During his tenure throughout World War II
World War II
(1939–45), he instituted a reign of terror against the civilian population[1] and became directly involved in the mass murder of Jews
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Hans-Dieter Frank
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
(German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry.[1] A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945.[Note 1] This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR)
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Reichswehr
The Reichswehr
Reichswehr
(English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
(Defence Force).Contents1 Founding 2 State within the state 3 Creation of the Wehrmacht 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksFounding[edit] At the end of World War I, the forces of the German Empire
German Empire
had mostly split up, the men making their way home individually or in small groups. Many of them joined the Freikorps
Freikorps
(Free Corps), a collection of volunteer paramilitary units that were involved in suppressing the German Revolution
German Revolution
and border clashes between 1918 and 1923. The Reichswehr
Reichswehr
was limited to a standing army of 100,000 men,[1] and a navy of 15,000
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Franz Ritter Von Epp
Franz Xaver Ritter von Epp, from 1916 Ritter von Epp, (16 October 1868 – 31 January 1947)[1][Notes 1] was a German general and politician, who had started his military career in the Bavarian Army. Succeeded and merited military service during war brought him a knighthood in 1916. After the armistice of Germany and dissolution of Empire, von Epp was a commanding officer in Freikorps and Reichswehr. He was member of Bavarian People's Party before joining with Nazi Party in 1928, when he got elected as a member of German parliament, Reichstag, to the position he held until the end of Third Reich
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Bavarian Council Republic
Coordinates: 48°08′N 11°34′E / 48.133°N 11.567°E / 48.133; 11.567Bavarian Soviet RepublicBayerische RäterepublikUnrecognized state1919FlagCoat of ArmsMotto "Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!" "Workers of the world, unite!"Anthem Die Internationale The InternationaleThe location of the Bavarian Soviet Republic
Bavarian Soviet Republic
(in red) shown with the rest of the Weimar R
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Mussolini
(/bəˈniːtoʊ mʊsəˈliːni, muːsə-/; Italian: [beˈnito mussoˈlini];[1] 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF)
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March On Rome
National Fascist Party BlackshirtsCommanders and leaders Luigi Facta Antonio Salandra Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Italo Balbo Cesare Maria De Vecchi Michele BianchiPolitical supportLiberal and Socialist parties Military and the business classMilitary supportItalian Police and Armed Forces 30,000 MilitiamenThe March on Rome
Rome
(Italian: Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(Regno d'Italia). In late October 1922, Fascist Party leaders planned an insurrection, to take place on 28 October. When fascist troops entered Rome, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Luigi Facta wished to declare a state of siege, but this was overruled by the king
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Official languages German[a][b]
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Hanns Ludin
Hanns Elard Ludin (10 June 1905, in Freiburg
Freiburg
– 9 December 1947, in Bratislava) was a German diplomat. Born in Freiburg
Freiburg
to Friedrich and Johanna Ludin, Ludin began his Nazi affiliation in 1930 by joining the party, and was arrested for his political activities the same year. Imprisoned until 1931, he joined the SA on his release. Ludin was lucky to survive the "Night of the Long Knives" in 1934 when Hitler purged much of the left-wing of the Nazi party. Ludin restored his reputation by joining the Foreign Office and became Ambassador to the Slovak Republic in 1941, replacing Manfred von Killinger. Ludin's activities included convincing the Slovak government to comply with deportations for slave labor and providing diplomatic cover to such activities
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Reichstag (Weimar Republic)
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm[1]) was a legislative body of Weimar Germany (the "German Reich") from 1919, when it succeeded the Weimar National Assembly, until the Nazi takeover in 1933.Contents1 Overview 2 Home 3 Elections results 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] Although German constitutional commentators consider only the Reichstag and now the Bundestag
Bundestag
to be the German parliament, in fact since 1871 Germany has been governed by a bicameral legislature, of which the Reichstag served as a lower house and the Reichsrat (after 1949 the Bundesrat) as the upper house. Constitutionally, the Reichsrat represented the governments of the federal German states. According to the 1919 Weimar Constitution, the members of the Reichstag were to be elected by general universal suffrage according to the principle of proportional representation. Votes were cast for nationwide party lists
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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Bavaria
Anthem: Bayernhymne  (German) "Hymn of Bavaria"Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111Country GermanyCapital MunichGovernment • Body Landtag of Bavaria • Minister-President Markus Söder
Markus Söder
(CSU – Christian Social Union of Bavaria) • Governing party CSU • Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)Area • Total 70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)Population (2016-12-31)[1] • Total 12,930,75
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Dachau Concentration Camp
Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich
Munich
in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[3] Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany
Germany
occupied or invaded
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (Polish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Mazurek Dąbro
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Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk
(Ukrainian: Іва́но-Франкі́вськ, translit. Ivano-Frankivs'k [iˈβɑnofrɐnˈkiu̯sʲk] ( listen); formerly Stanyslaviv,[2] Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in western Ukraine.[3] It is the administrative centre of the Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk
Oblast. Administratively, it is designated as a city of regional significance within the oblast, and together with a number of rural localities, is incorporated as Ivano-Frankivsk Municipality. Population: 230,929 (2016 est.)[4]. Built in the mid-17th century as a fortress of the Polish Potocki family, Stanisławów was annexed to the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
during the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
in 1772, after which it became the property of the State within the Austrian Empire
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