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Han Poetry
Han poetry
Han poetry
as a style of poetry resulted in significant poems which are still preserved today, and which have their origin associated with the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
era of China, 206 BC – 220 AD, including the Wang Mang interregnum (9–23 AD)
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Song Yu
Song Yu (Chinese: 宋玉; Wade–Giles: Sung Yü; fl. 298–263 BC) was an ancient Chinese writer from the late Warring States period, and is known as the traditional author of a number of poems in the Verses of Chu ( Chu ci
Chu ci
楚辭). Among the Verses of Chu poems usually attributed to Song Yu are those in the Jiu Bian section
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Confucius
Confucius
Confucius
(/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC – 479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
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Dayuan
Dayuan
Dayuan
(Ta-yuan; Old Chinese
Old Chinese
reconstructed pronunciation: /dhaːts ʔwan/; Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
reconstructed pronunciation according to Edwin G. Pulleyblank: /daj ʔuan/; Chinese: 大宛; pinyin: Dàyuān; Wade–Giles: Ta4-yuan1; literally: "Great Ionians") was a country in Ferghana
Ferghana
valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
and the Book of Han. It is mentioned in the accounts of the famous Chinese explorer Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
in 130 BCE and the numerous embassies that followed him into Central Asia
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Ferghana
Fergana (Uzbek: Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Tajik: Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; Persian: فرغانه‎ Farġāna/Farqâna; Russian: Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan
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Xiping Stone Classics
The Xiping Stone Classics
Xiping Stone Classics
(Chinese: 熹平石經) are a collection of Han dynasty
Han dynasty
stone carved books on various Confucian classics. They were set up at the Imperial Academy outside Luoyang
Luoyang
in 175–183. The Classics were created by Cai Yong
Cai Yong
and a group of affiliated scholars who "petitioned the emperor to have the Confucian classics carved in stone in order to prevent their being altered to support particular points of view."[1] Around 200,000 characters were inscribed on 46 stelae of the seven classics recognized at the time: the Book of Changes, Book of Documents, Book of Songs, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals, Classic of Filial Piety
Classic of Filial Piety
and Analects
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History Of Paper
Paper
Paper
is a white material primarily used for writing. Although contemporary precursors such as papyrus and amate existed in the Mediterranean world and pre-Columbian Americas, respectively, these materials are not defined as true paper. The first papermaking process was documented in China
China
during the Eastern Han
Eastern Han
period (25–220 C.E.), traditionally attributed to the court official Cai Lun. During the 8th century, Chinese papermaking spread to the Islamic world, where pulp mills and paper mills were used for money making. By the 11th century, papermaking was brought to medieval Europe, where it was refined with the earliest known paper mills utilizing waterwheels
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Bamboo And Wooden Slips
Bamboo and wooden slips
Bamboo and wooden slips
(Chinese: 简牍; pinyin: jiǎndú) were the main media and writing medium for documents in China before the widespread introduction of paper during the first two centuries AD. (Silk was occasionally used, but was prohibitively expensive.) The earliest surviving examples of wood or bamboo slips date from the 5th century BC during the Warring States period. However, references in earlier texts surviving on other media make it clear that some precursor of these Warring States period
Warring States period
bamboo slips was in use as early as the late Shang period (from about 1250 BC)
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Burning Of Books And Burying Of Scholars
The burning of books and burying of scholars (simplified Chinese: 焚书坑儒; traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; pinyin: fénshū kēngrú) refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE
BCE
and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 210 BCE
BCE
by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
of ancient China. The event caused the loss of many philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought. The official philosophy of government ("legalism") survived. Recent scholars doubt the details of the story in the Records of the Grand Historian—the main source —since Sima Qian, the author, wrote a century or so after the events and was an official of the Han dynasty, which could be expected to portray the previous rulers unfavorably
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Liu Xiang (scholar)
Liu
Liu
Xiang (77–6 BCE[1]), born Liu
Liu
Gengsheng and bearing the courtesy name Zizheng, was a Chinese politician, historian, and writer of the Western Han Dynasty. Among his polymathic scholarly specialties were history, literary bibliography, and astronomy. He is particularly well known for his bibliographic work in cataloging and editing the extensive imperial library.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] Liu
Liu
Gengsheng was born in Xuzhou. Being a distant relative of Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, he was thus a member of the ruling dynastic clan (the Liu
Liu
family)
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Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
(Chinese: 張騫; d. 113 BC)[1] was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China
China
in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty. He was the first official diplomat to bring back reliable information about Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Chinese imperial court, then under Emperor Wu of Han, and played an important pioneering role in the Chinese colonization and conquest of the region now known as Xinjiang. Today Zhang Qian's travels are associated with the major route of transcontinental trade, the Silk Road. In essence, his missions opened up to China
China
the many kingdoms and products of a part of the world then unknown to the Chinese
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Persona
A persona (plural personae or personas), in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor. The word is derived from Latin, where it originally referred to a theatrical mask.[1] The Latin word probably derived from the Etruscan word "phersu", with the same meaning, and that from the Greek πρόσωπον (prosōpon). Its meaning in the latter Roman period changed to indicate a "character" of a theatrical performance or court of law,[citation needed] when it became apparent that different individuals could assume the same role, and legal attributes such as rights, powers, and duties followed the role. The same individuals as actors could play different roles, each with its own legal attributes, sometimes even in the same court appearance
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Consort Ban
Consort Ban
Consort Ban
(c. 48 – c. 6 BCE), or Ban Jieyu (Chinese: 班婕妤; pinyin: Bān Jiéyú; Wade–Giles: Pan Chieh-yü), also known as Lady Ban (Pan), was a Chinese scholar and poet during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 23 CE). Jieyu (婕妤) was a title for a third-rank palace lady, one rank below concubines (bin, who figured as second-rank palace ladies);[1] her personal name is not known.Contents1 Life1.1 Family2 Poems 3 Inclusion in the Lienü zhuan 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Consort Ban
Consort Ban
declining to ride with Emperor Cheng on his palanquin. The painting is from the bottom panel of a Northern Wei
Northern Wei
screen. Consort Ban
Consort Ban
started as a junior maid, became a concubine of Emperor Chengdi and quickly rose to prominence at court.[2] She bore him two sons, but both died in infancy
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Mi Heng
Mi Heng[a] (c. AD 173 – 198), courtesy name Zhengping, was an ancient Chinese writer and musician who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He is best known for his fu rhapsody "Fu on the Parrot", which is his only work that has survived to modern times.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Notes 4 References4.1 Footnotes 4.2 Works citedLife[edit] Mi Heng
Mi Heng
was born around AD 173 in Ban County (般縣), Pingyuan Commandery (平原郡), which is in present-day Shanghe County, Shandong.[2] In the early 190s, Mi Heng, like many others, fled northern China to escape the chaos that broke out towards the end of the Han dynasty
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Long Corridor
Coordinates: 39°59′49.6″N 116°16′15″E / 39.997111°N 116.27083°E / 39.997111; 116.27083 The Long Corridor
Long Corridor
(simplified Chinese: 长廊; traditional Chinese: 長廊; pinyin: Cháng Láng) is a covered walkway in the Summer Palace
Summer Palace
in Beijing, China
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Xiongnu
The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire.[4] After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu
Gansu
and Xinjiang
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