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Hamza
Hamza
Hamza
(Arabic: همزة‎, hamzah) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop [ʔ]. Hamza
Hamza
is not one of the 28 "full" letters and owes its existence to historical inconsistencies in the standard writing system. It is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
letter ‘ayn. In the Phoenician and Aramaic alphabets, from which the Arabic alphabet is descended, the glottal stop was expressed by aleph (), continued by alif (  ) in the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. However, alif was used to express both a glottal stop and a long vowel /aː/. To indicate that a glottal stop, and not a mere vowel, was intended, hamza was added diacritically to alif. In modern orthography, under certain circumstances, hamza may also appear on the line, as if it were a full letter, independent of an alif
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Quran
The Quran
Quran
(/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān,[b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
(Allah).[1] It is widely
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Orthography
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation. Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops in a more organic way
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Ezāfe
Ezāfe (Persian: اضافه‎), also written as izafet, izafe, izafat, izāfa, and izofa (Tajik: изофа izofa), is a grammatical particle found in some Iranian languages
Iranian languages
and Urdu
Urdu
that links two words together; in the Persian language
Persian language
it consists of the unstressed vowel -e or -i (-ye or -yi after vowels)[1] between the words it connects and often approximately corresponds in usage to the English preposition of
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Diphthong
A diphthong (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong;[1] from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In many dialects of English, the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong (/ɑː/), while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most dialects (/aʊ/)
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Urdu
  Pakistan
Pakistan
(national and official)   India
India
(official as per the 8th Schedule of the Constitution and in the following states/union territories) Official:Jammu and Kashmir TelanganaSecondary Official:National Capital Territory of Delhi Bihar Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand West BengalRecognised minority language in United Arab Emirates[6]  Guyana[7] (as Guyanese Hindustani)  Suriname[7] (as Sarnami Hindoestani)  Trinidad and Tobago[7] (as Trinidadian Hindustani)Language codesISO 639-1 urISO 639-2 urdISO 639-3 urdGlottolog urdu1245[8]Linguasphere 59-AAF-q  Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is either official or co-official   Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is neither official nor co-officialThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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2 (number)
2 (two; /ˈtuː/ ( listen)) is a number, numeral, and glyph. It is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3.Contents1 In mathematics1.1 List of basic calculations2 Evolution of the glyph 3 In science 4 In technology 5 In religion5.1 Judaism6 Numerological significance 7 In sports 8 In other fields 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksIn mathematics[edit] An integer is called even if it is divisible by 2. For integers written in a numeral system based on an even number, such as decimal, hexadecimal, or in any other base that is even, divisibility by 2 is easily tested by merely looking at the last digit. If it is even, then the whole number is even. In particular, when written in the decimal system, all multiples of 2 will end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8. Two is the smallest prime number, and the only even prime number (for this reason it is sometimes called "the oddest prime").[1] The next prime is three
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Khowar Alphabet
The Khowar alphabet
Khowar alphabet
is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Khowar language. It is a modification of the Urdu alphabet, which is itself a derivative of the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
and Arabic alphabet, and uses the calligraphic Nasta'liq script.Contents1 History 2 Nasta'liq 3 Alphabet3.1 Vowels4 Vowel
Vowel
chart4.1 Short vowels 4.2 Alif 4.3 Wā'o 4.4 Ye5 Use of specific letters5.1 Retroflex letters 5.2 Do chashmī he6 ReferencesHistory[edit]Khowar-AlphabetsThe Khowar language
Khowar language
developed during the rule of Mehtar of Chitral State.Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet
Urdu alphabet
and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition
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Preposition
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions),[1] are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).[2] A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. A preposition comes before its complement; a postposition comes after its complement. English generally has prepositions rather than postpositions – words such as in, under and of precede their objects, such as in England, under the table, of Jane – although there are a few exceptions including "ago" and "notwithstanding", as in "three days ago" and "financial limitations notwithstanding". Some languages that use a different word order, have postpositions instead, or have both types
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Definite Article
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ART) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects
Anglian dialects
was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots
Modern Scots
as the number "owan"
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Modifier Letter Apostrophe
The modifier letter apostrophe (ʼ) is a glyph. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, it is used to express ejective consonants, such as / kʼ /, / tʼ /, etc. It denotes a glottal stop (IPA /ʔ/) in orthographies of many languages, such as Nenets. It is encoded at U+02BC ʼ MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE (HTML ʼ). In Unicode code charts it looks identical to the U+2019 ’ RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK,[1] but (unlike the U+2019, which has the "Punctuation, Final quote" (Pf) General Category) it has the "Letter, modifier" (Lm) General Category. Although the Unicode standard versions 1.0[2]–2.1.9[3] considered this character as the "preferred character for a punctuation apostrophe", versions since 3.0.0,[4] including the current one,[5] consider the U+2019 ’ RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK as the preferred character
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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Phoenician Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCE Paleo-Hebrew
Paleo-Hebrew
10 c. BCE Samaritan
Samaritan
6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic
Aramaic
8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c
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ALA-LC
ALA-LC ( American Library Association
American Library Association
- Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.Contents1 Applications 2 Scripts 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksApplications[edit] The system is used to represent bibliographic information by North American libraries and the British Library (for acquisitions since 1975)[1] and in publications throughout the English-speaking world. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
require catalogers to romanize access points from their non-Roman originals.[2] However, as the MARC standards have been expanded to allow records containing Unicode characters,[3][4] many cataloguers now include bibliographic data in both Roman and original scripts
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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