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Hamstring
In human anatomy, a hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee (from medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris).[3] In quadrupeds, the hamstring is the single large tendon found behind the knee or comparable area.Contents1 Criteria 2 Structure 3 Function 4 Clinical significance4.1 Imaging 4.2 Use in surgery5 History5.1 Etymology6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCriteria[edit] The common criteria of any hamstring muscles are: Muscles
Muscles
should originate from ischial tuberosity.
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Tuberosity Of The Ischium
The ischial tuberosity (or tuberosity of the ischium, tuber ischiadicum), also known informally as the sit bones, or as a pair the sitting bones[1] is a large swelling posteriorly on the superior ramus of the ischium
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Lateral Supracondylar Line Of Femur
The femur (/ˈfiːmər/, pl. femurs or femora /ˈfɛmərə, ˈfɛmrə/[1][2]) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs. In vertebrates with four legs such as dogs and horses, the femur is found only in the hindlimbs. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body
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Linea Aspera
The linea aspera (Latin: rough line) is a ridge of roughened surface on the posterior surface of the shaft of the femur, to which are attached muscles and intermuscular septum. Its margins diverge above and below. The linea aspera is a prominent longitudinal ridge or crest, on the middle third of the bone, presenting a medial and a lateral lip, and a narrow rough, intermediate line. It is an important insertion point for the adductors and the lateral and medial intermuscular septa that divides the thigh into three compartments. The tension generated by muscle attached to the bones is responsible for the formation of the ridges.Contents1 Structure1.1 Above 1.2 Below 1.3 Development2 Function 3 Additional images 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit] Above[edit] Above, the linea aspera is prolonged by three ridges.The lateral ridge is very rough, and runs almost vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter
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Ischial Tuberosity
The ischial tuberosity (or tuberosity of the ischium, tuber ischiadicum), also known informally as the sit bones, or as a pair the sitting bones[1] is a large swelling posteriorly on the superior ramus of the ischium
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Hip Joint
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"[1] in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint. The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region (i.e., the buttock), inferior to the iliac crest, and overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone".[2] In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region. The hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint (art. coxae), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures. The hip joints are the most important part in retaining balance
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Epicondyle
An epicondyle (/ɛpɪˈkɒndaɪl/) is a rounded eminence on a bone that lies upon a condyle (epi-, "upon" + condyle, from a root meaning "knuckle" or "rounded articular area"). There are various epicondyles in the human skeleton, each named by its anatomic site
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Medial Tibial Condyle
The medial condyle is the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It is the site of insertion for the Semimembranosus muscle.Contents1 See also 2 Additional images 3 References 4 External linksSee also[edit]Lateral condyle of tibia Medial collateral ligamentAdditional images[edit]Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface.Bones of the right leg. Posterior surface.Right knee in extension. Deep dissection. Posterior view.Right knee in extension. Deep dissection
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Head Of The Fibula
Superior and inferior tibiofibular joint AnkleIdentifiersLatin (os) fibulaMeSH D005360TA A02.5.07.001FMA 24479Anatomical terms of bone [edit on Wikidata]The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the level of the knee joint, and excluded from the formation of this joint
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Common Peroneal Nerve
The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; lateral popliteal nerve) is a nerve in the lower leg that provides sensation over the posterolateral part of the leg and the knee joint. Its is divided into terminal branches of superficial peroneal nerve and deep peroneal nerve where the latter two supplies the muscles of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg. When the common peroneal nerve is damaged or compressed, foot drop can be the end result.Contents1 Structure1.1 Cutaneous branches 1.2 Articular branches 1.3 Motor branches2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] The common peroneal nerve is the smaller terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The common peroneal nerve has root values of L4, L5, S1, and S2. It arises from the superior angle of the popliteal fossa and extends to the lateral angle of the popliteal fossa, along the medial border of the biceps femoris
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Human Anatomy
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy
Human anatomy
– scientific study of the morphology of the adult human. It is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy
(also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy
Microscopic anatomy
is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, and includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells).The Anatomy
Anatomy
Lesson of Dr
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Ultrasound
Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasound imaging
Ultrasound imaging
or sonography is often used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes
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MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays and the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. While the hazards of X-rays
X-rays
are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI may still be seen as a better choice than CT. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposing the body to radiation
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Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
(from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a "surgical procedure", "operation", or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective "surgical" means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon's assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance
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Anterior Cruciate Ligament
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee. The two ligaments are also called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint (analogous to the knee), based on its anatomical position, it is also referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament.[1] The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion.[2]Contents1 Structure 2 Purpose 3 Clinical significance3.1 Injury 3.2 Non-operative treatment of the ACL3.2.1 ACL injuries in Women4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] The ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur. Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm
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