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Hammurabi
Hammurabi[a] (c. 1810 BC – c. 1750 BC) was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology). He was preceded by his father, Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. During his reign, he conquered the city-states of Elam, Larsa, Eshnunna, and Mari. He ousted Ishme-Dagan
Ishme-Dagan
I, the king of Assyria, and forced his son Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute, thereby bringing almost all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule.[2] Hammurabi
Hammurabi
is best known for having issued the Code of Hammurabi, which he claimed to have received from Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice
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Calendar
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record (often paper) of such a system
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Torah
Torah
(/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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National God
National gods are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation), and of that group's leaders. This is contrasted with other guardian figures such as family gods responsible for the well-being of individual clans or professions, or personal gods who are responsible for the well-being of individuals. These guardian roles augment the functions that a divinity might otherwise have (wisdom, health, war, and so on).Contents1 National gods 2 In antiquity 3 Modern period 4 See also 5 ReferencesNational gods[edit] In antiquity (and to some extent continuing today), religion was a characteristic of regional culture, together with language, customs, traditions, etc
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City-state
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage,[1] and the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during the Renaissance. As of March 2018 only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Mut-Ashkur
Mut-Ashkur was the king of Assyria from 1730 BC to 1720 BC. He was the son and successor of Ishme-Dagan. His father arranged for him to marry the daughter of the Hurrian king Zaziya.[1]Preceded by Ishme-Dagan I King of Assyria 1730–1720 BC Succeeded by RimushReferences[edit]^ Who's who in the ancient Near East By Gwendolyn Leickv t eAssyrian kingsEarly Bronze Age"Kings who lived in tents" (ca. 2500 – 2000 BC)Tudiya Adamu Yangi Suhlamu Harharu Mandaru Imsu Harsu Didanu Hana Zuabu Nuabu Abazu Belu Azarah Ushpia Apiashal"Kings who were forefathers" (ca. 2000 BC)Apiashal Hale Samani Hayani Ilu-Mer Yakmesi Yakmeni Yazkur-el Ila-kabkabu Aminu"Kings whose eponyms are destroyed" (ca. 2000 – 1900 BC)Sulili Kikkia Akiya Puzur-Ashur I Shallim-ahhe IlushumaMiddle Bronze AgeOld Assyrian period (ca
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Literacy
Literacy
Literacy
is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write .[1] The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.[2] The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony
(UK: /hɪˈɡɛməni, hɪˈdʒɛməni/, US: /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ ( pronunciation (help·info)) or /ˈhɛdʒəˌmoʊni/) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.[1][2][3][4] In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states.[5] The dominant state is known as the hegemon.[6] In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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Borsippa
Coordinates: 32°23′31.19″N 44°20′30.08″E / 32.3919972°N 44.3416889°E / 32.3919972; 44.3416889The mountain of Borsippa
Borsippa
(in antiquity Babel). Drawn by Faucher-Gudin. Borsippa
Borsippa
(Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip)[1] or Birs Nimrud (having been identified with Nimrod) is an archeological site in Babylon
Babylon
Province, Iraq. The ziggurat, the "Tongue Tower," today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic
Talmudic
and Arabic
Arabic
culture with the Tower of Babel
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Kish (Sumer)
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform: 𒆧𒆠;[1] Akkadian: kiššatu[2]) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate
Babil Governorate
of Iraq, east of Babylon
Babylon
and 80 km south of Baghdad.Contents1 History 2 Archaeology 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]The ancient cities of SumerKish was occupied from the Jemdet Nasr period
Jemdet Nasr period
(c. 3100 BC), gaining prominence as one of the pre-eminent powers in the region during the early dynastic period. The Sumerian king list
Sumerian king list
states that Kish was the first city to have kings following the deluge,[3] beginning with Jushur
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Geopolitics
Geopolitics
Geopolitics
(from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.[1] While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and; relations between sub-national geopolitical entities, such as the federated states that make up a federation, confederation or a quasi-federal system. At the level of international relations, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Zagros Mountains
The Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
(Persian: کوه‌های زاگرس‬‎; Kurdish: چیاکانی زاگرۆس‬‎) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq
Iraq
and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,500 km (930 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran
Iran
and roughly corresponds to Iran's western border. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz
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