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Hamadan
HAMADāN (pronounced ) or HAMEDāN (Persian : همدان‎‎, Hamadān) ( Old Persian : Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran . At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families. Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus , states that it was the capital of the Medes , around 700 BCE. Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level . The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran
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Herodotus
HERODOTUS (/hɪˈrɒdətəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
(modern-day Bodrum , Turkey
Turkey
) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides
Thucydides
, Socrates
Socrates
, and Euripides . He is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred by Cicero
Cicero
; he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials systematically and critically, and then arranging them into a historiographic narrative
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Above Mean Sea Level
METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL (MAMSL) or simply METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL (MASL or M A.S.L.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level . Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment
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Assyria
ASSYRIA was a major Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant
Levant
. It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
through to the late Iron Age
Iron Age

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Ottomans
The OTTOMAN DYNASTY was made up of the members of the imperial HOUSE OF OSMAN (Ottoman Turkish : خاندان آل عثمان‎, Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān; Turkish : Osmanlı Hanedanı). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks , under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the district of Bilecik
Bilecik
Söğüt . The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from c. 1299 to 1922
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UTC+4
UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T04:26:45+04:00
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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Baghdad
BAGHDAD ( Arabic
Arabic
: بغداد‎, ( listen )) is the capital of Iraq . The population of Baghdad, as of 2016 , is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
). Located along the Tigris River , the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Persian People
The PERSIANS are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran
Iran
. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language
Persian language
, as well as closely related languages. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed greatly to various forms of art , owning one of the world\'s most prominent literary traditions , and have made contributions in numerous other fields, including mathematics, theology, medicine, and various other sciences
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Parthian Empire
The PARTHIAN EMPIRE (/ˈpɑːrθiən/ ; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the ARSACID EMPIRE (/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/ ), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran
Iran
's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids
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Ctesiphon
CTESIPHON (/ˈtɛsᵻfɒn/ TESIFON ; Greek : Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian / Middle Persian : tyspwn or tysfwn ) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of Tigris , and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of present-day Baghdad . It became the capital of the Parthian Empire in about 58 BC , and remained the capital of the Sasanian Empire until the Muslim conquest of Persia in 651 . Ctesiphon developed into a rich commercial metropolis, merging with the surrounding cities along both shores of the river, including the Hellenistic city of Seleucia . Ctesiphon and its environs were therefore sometimes referred to as "The Cities" ( Aramaic : Mahuza, Arabic : المدائن‎‎, al-Mada\'in )
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Clifford Edmund Bosworth
CLIFFORD EDMUND BOSWORTH FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist , specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected books * 3 Articles * 4 Awards * 5 References * 6 External links LIFEBosworth was born on 29 December 1928, Sheffield
Sheffield
, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and MA and PhD degrees from the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
. He held permanent posts at the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
, University of Manchester , and at the Center for the Humanities at Princeton University . He was a visiting professor at the University of Exeter , where he held the post since 2004
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Mithridates II Of Parthia
MITHRIDATES II (meaning "Gift of Mithra
Mithra
") was king of Parthian Empire from 121 to 91 BC. He was already known as "the Great" in antiquity. He is the first Parthian ruler to call himself "King of Kings " on his coinage and thereby attach himself to the Achaemenids . He also referred to himself on his coinage with the Greek titles Epiphanes ("God manifest") and Philellen ("Friend of the Greeks"). Mithridates II is counted as the greatest of the Parthian kings, under whom the empire reached its greatest extent. CONTENTS * 1 Conquest of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* 2 The east of the Empire * 3 The west of the Empire * 4 Internal politics * 5 Depictions of the King * 6 Notes * 7 References CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIATraditionally, it is believed that Mithridates II was the son of his predecessor Artabanus II , who died in battle against eastern enemies in ca 124 BC
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Nader Shah Afshar
KHORASAN CAMPAIGN * Mashhad * Sangan * Sabzevar AFGHAN CAMPAIGNS * 1st Afghan Campaign * Kafer Qal\'eh * Herat 1729 * 2nd Afghan Campaign * Qandahar SAFAVID RESTORATION * Damghan * Khwar pass * Murche-Khort * Isfahan * Zarghan FIRST OTTOMAN WAR * West Persian Campaign * Nahavand * Malayer * Tahmasp\'s Campaign * Yerevan * Mesopotamian Campaign * 1st Baghdad * Samarra * Kirkuk * Caucasus Campaign * Ganja * Yeghevārd INDIAN CAMPAIGN * Khyber pass * Battle of Karnal * Sindh Expedition CENTRAL ASIAN CAMPAIGN * Bukhara * Petnak DAGESTAN CAMPAIGN * Andalal PERSIAN GULF CAMPAIGN SECOND OTTOMAN WAR * Siege of Mosul * Battle of Mosul * Battle of Kars REBELLIONS also known as Nader Qoli Beygنادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khanتهماسپ قلی
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Matrakçı Nasuh
NASUH BIN KARAGöZ BIN ABDULLAH EL-VISOKAVI EL-BOSNAVî, or Nasuh el-Matrakči ibn Karađoz ibn Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known as MATRAKçı NASUH (Turkish pronunciation: ; Bosnian : MATRAKčIJA NASUH VISOčAK) for his competence in the game of Matrak , invented by himself, (also known as Nasuh el-Silâhî, Nasuh the Swordsman, because of his talent with weapons; 1480 – c. 1564) was a 16th-century Bosniak statesman of the Ottoman Empire , polymath , mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer , cartographer , swordmaster , navigator , inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist . He was brought to Istanbul after being recruited by the Ottoman scouts in Rumelia , educated, served several Ottoman sultans , and became a teacher at Enderun School
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Iran Daylight Time
IRAN STANDARD TIME (IRST) or IRAN TIME (IT) is the time zone used in Iran
Iran
. Iran
Iran
uses a UTC offset UTC+03:30 . IRST is defined by the 52.5 degrees east meridian , the same meridian which defines the Iranian calendar and is the official meridian of Iran. Between 2005 and 2008, by decree of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
, Iran
Iran
did not observe daylight saving time (called Iran
Iran
Daylight Time or IRDT). It was reintroduced from 21 March 2008
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