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Hamadan
Hamadān[2] (pronounced [hæmædɒːn]) or Hamedān (Persian: همدان‎, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province
Hamadan Province
of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.[3] Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand
Alvand
Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Matrakçı Nasuh
Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, or Nasuh el-Matrakči ibn Karađoz ibn Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known as Matrakçı Nasuh
Matrakçı Nasuh
(Turkish pronunciation: [matrakˈtʃɯ naˈsuh]; Bosnian: Matrakčija Nasuh Visočak) for his competence in the game of Matrak, invented by himself, (also known as Nasuh el-Silâhî, Nasuh the Swordsman, because of his talent with weapons; 1480 – c. 1564) was a 16th-century Bosniak[1][2][3] statesman of the Ottoman Empire, polymath, mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer, cartographer, swordmaster, navigator, inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist
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Mithridates II Of Parthia
Mithridates II (meaning "Gift of Mithra") was king of Parthian Empire from 121 to 91 BC.[1] He was already known as "the Great" in antiquity.[3] He is the first Parthian ruler to call himself "King of Kings" on his coinage and thereby attach himself to the Achaemenids. He also referred to himself on his coinage with the Greek titles Epiphanes ("God manifest") and Philhellene
Philhellene
("Friend of the Greeks").[4] Mithridates II is counted as the greatest of the Parthian kings, under whom the empire reached its greatest extent.Contents1 Conquest of Mesopotamia 2 The east of the Empire 3 The west of the Empire 4 Internal politics 5 Depictions of the King 6 Notes 7 ReferencesConquest of Mesopotamia[edit] Traditionally, it is believed that Mithridates II was the son of his predecessor Artabanus II, who died in battle against eastern enemies in c. 124 BC
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world.[13][14] Th
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Clifford Edmund Bosworth
Clifford
Clifford
may refer to: Clifford
Clifford
(name), an English given name and surname, includes a list of people with that namePlaces[edit]EnglandClifford, Devon, a location Clifford, Herefordshire
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Parthian Empire
The Parthian Empire
Empire
(/ˈpɑːrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire
Empire
(/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/),[9] was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq.[10] Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia[11] who, as leader of the Parni
Parni
tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia[12] in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia
Parthia
(r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire
Empire
stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran
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Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
(/ˈtɛsɪfɒn/ TESIFON; Greek: Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian/Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn[1]) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of Tigris, and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of present-day Baghdad. It became the capital of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
in about 58 BC, and remained the capital of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
until the Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia
in 651. Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
developed into a rich commercial metropolis, merging with the surrounding cities along both shores of the river, including the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
city of Seleucia. Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
and its environs were therefore sometimes referred to as "The Cities" (Aramaic: Mahuza, Arabic: المدائن‎, al-Mada'in)
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Above Mean Sea Level
Metres
Metres
above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level. Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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UTC+4
UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2018-04-06T02:17:58+04:00
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Iran Daylight Time
Iran
Iran
Standard Time (IRST) or Iran
Iran
Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran. Iran
Iran
uses a UTC offset UTC+03:30. IRST is defined by the 52.5 degrees east meridian, the same meridian which defines the Iranian calendar and is the official meridian of Iran. Between 2005 and 2008, by decree of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iran
Iran
did not observe daylight saving time (called Iran
Iran
Daylight Time or IRDT).[1][2] It was reintroduced from 21 March 2008.Contents1 Daylight Saving Transitions Dates 2 Time zone
Time zone
changes 3 IANA time zone database 4 See also 5 ReferencesDaylight Saving Transitions Dates[edit] Iran
Iran
is unusual in that the dates of DST transitions aren't based on a rule such as the third Monday in September
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in US, Canadian and Australian speech,[1][2] and known as British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(BST) in the UK and just summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time.[3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916
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