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Hadfield Steel
MANGALLOY, also called MANGANESE STEEL or HADFIELD STEEL, is a steel alloy containing an average of around 13% manganese. Mangalloy is known for its high impact strength and resistance to abrasion once in its work-hardened state. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Mangalloy is made by alloying steel, containing 0.8 to 1.25% carbon, with 11 to 15% manganese . Mangalloy is a unique non-magnetic steel with extreme anti-wear properties. The material is very resistant to abrasion and will achieve up to three times its surface hardness during conditions of impact , without any increase in brittleness which is usually associated with hardness. This allows mangalloy to retain its toughness . Most steels contain 0.15 to 0.8% manganese. High strength alloys often contain 1 to 1.8% manganese. At about 1.5% manganese content, the steel becomes brittle, and this trait increases until about 4 to 5% manganese content is reached
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Plasma Cutter
Play media CNC Plasma Cutting Plasma cutting performed by an industrial robot PLASMA CUTTING is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma . Typical materials cut with a plasma torch include steel , Stainless steel , aluminum , brass and copper , although other conductive metals may be cut as well. Plasma cutting is often used in fabrication shops, automotive repair and restoration , industrial construction , and salvage and scrapping operations. Due to the high speed and precision cuts combined with low cost, plasma cutting sees widespread use from large-scale industrial CNC applications down to small hobbyist shops
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Oxy-acetylene Torch
OXY-FUEL WELDING (commonly called OXYACETYLENE WELDING, OXY WELDING, or GAS WELDING in the U.S.) and OXY-FUEL CUTTING are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903. Pure oxygen, instead of air , is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the workpiece material (e.g. steel) in a room environment. A common propane/air flame burns at about 2,250 K (1,980 °C; 3,590 °F), a propane/oxygen flame burns at about 2,526 K (2,253 °C; 4,087 °F), an oxyhydrogen flame burns at 3,073 K (2,800 °C; 5,072 °F), and an acetylene/oxygen flame burns at about 3,773 K (3,500 °C; 6,332 °F). Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes, besides forge welding
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Laser Cutting
LASER CUTTING is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists. Laser
Laser
cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC
CNC
(computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. A typical commercial laser for cutting materials would involve a motion control system to follow a CNC
CNC
or G-code
G-code
of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused laser beam is directed at the material, which then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Malleability
In materials science , DUCTILITY is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. MALLEABILITY, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. Both of these mechanical properties are aspects of plasticity , the extent to which a solid material can be plastically deformed without fracture . Also, these material properties are dependent on temperature and pressure (investigated by Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
as part of his Nobel Prize-winning work on high pressures). Ductility
Ductility
and malleability are not always coextensive – for instance, while gold has high ductility and malleability, lead has low ductility but high malleability
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Machining
MACHINING is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as SUBTRACTIVE MANUFACTURING, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing . Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools ). Machining
Machining
is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood , plastic , ceramic , and composites . A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist . A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop
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Scratch Hardness
SCRATCH HARDNESS tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion. The earliest test was developed by mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1820 (see Mohs scale ). It is based on relative scratch hardness, with talc assigned a value of 1 and diamond assigned a value of 10. Mohs' scale
Mohs' scale
had two limitations; it was not linear, and most modern abrasives fall between 9 and 10. Raymond R. Ridgway, a research engineer at the Norton Company
Norton Company
, modified the Mohs scale by giving garnet a hardness of 10 and diamond a hardness of 15. Charles E. Wooddell, working at the Carborundum Company , extended the scale further by using resistance to abrasion, and extrapolating the scale based on seven for quartz and nine for corundum , resulting in a value of 42.4 for South American brown diamond bort
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Quenching
In materials science , QUENCHING is the rapid cooling of a workpiece to obtain certain material properties . A type of heat treating , quenching prevents undesired low-temperature processes, such as phase transformations, from occurring. It does this by reducing the window of time during which these undesired reactions are both thermodynamically favorable, and kinetically accessible; for instance, quenching can reduce the crystal grain size of both metallic and plastic materials, increasing their hardness. In metallurgy , quenching is most commonly used to harden steel by introducing martensite , in which case the steel must be rapidly cooled through its eutectoid point, the temperature at which austenite becomes unstable. In steel alloyed with metals such as nickel and manganese , the eutectoid temperature becomes much lower, but the kinetic barriers to phase transformation remain the same. This allows quenching to start at a lower temperature, making the process much easier
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Tempering (metallurgy)
TEMPERING is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron -based alloys . Tempering is usually performed after hardening , to reduce some of the excess hardness , and is done by heating the metal to some temperature below the critical point for a certain period of time, then allowing it to cool in still air. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties in the finished product. For instance, very hard tools are often tempered at low temperatures, while springs are tempered to much higher temperatures
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Brinell Hardness
The BRINELL SCALE /brəˈnɛl/ characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. It is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science . Proposed by Swedish engineer Johan August Brinell in 1900, it was the first widely used and standardised hardness test in engineering and metallurgy . The large size of indentation and possible damage to test-piece limits its usefulness. However it also had the useful feature that the hardness value divided by two gave the approximate UTS in ksi for steels. This feature contributed to its early adoption over competing hardness tests. The typical test uses a 10 millimetres (0.39 in) diameter steel ball as an indenter with a 3,000 kgf (29.42 kN ; 6,614 lbf ) force. For softer materials, a smaller force is used; for harder materials, a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball
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Indentation Hardness
INDENTATION HARDNESS tests are used in mechanical engineering to determine the hardness of a material to deformation. Several such tests exist, wherein the examined material is indented until an impression is formed; these tests can be performed on a macroscopic or microscopic scale. When testing metals, indentation hardness correlates roughly linearly with tensile strength ., but it is an imperfect correlation often limited to small ranges of strength and hardness for each indentation geometry. This relation permits economically important nondestructive testing of bulk metal deliveries with lightweight, even portable equipment, such as hand-held Rockwell hardness testers
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Noricum
NORICUM is the Latin
Latin
name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria
Austria
and part of Slovenia
Slovenia
. In the first century AD, it became a province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Its borders were the Danube
Danube
to the north, Raetia and Vindelicia to the west, Pannonia to the east and southeast, and Italia (Venetia et Histria ) to the south. The kingdom was founded around 400 BC, and had its capital at the royal residence at Virunum on the Magdalensberg
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Sir Henry Bessemer
SIR HENRY BESSEMER (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950. He also played a significant role in establishing the town of Sheffield as a major industrial centre. Bessemer had been trying to reduce the cost of steelmaking for military ordnance, and developed his system for blowing air through molten pig iron to remove the impurities. This made steel easier, quicker and cheaper to manufacture, and revolutionised structural engineering. One of the most significant innovators of the Second Industrial Revolution , Bessemer also made over 100 other inventions in the fields of iron, steel and glass. Unlike most inventors, he managed to bring his own projects to fruition and profited financially from their success
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Sir Robert Hadfield
SIR ROBERT ABBOTT HADFIELD, 1ST BARONET FRS (28 November 1858 in Sheffield – 30 September 1940 in Surrey ) was an English metallurgist , noted for his 1882 discovery of manganese steel , one of the first steel alloys . He also invented silicon steel , initially for mechanical properties (patents in 1886) which have made the alloy a material of choice for springs and some fine blades, though it has also become important in electrical applications for its magnetic behaviour. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Honours * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links LIFEHadfield was born 28 November 1858 in Sheffield. Hadfield's father, also named Robert Hadfield, owned Hadfield's Steel Foundry in Sheffield and was one of the first manufacturers of steel castings . The younger Hadfield took over the business in 1888 and built the firm into one of the largest foundries in the world. Between 1898 and 1939 he lived at Parkhead House in Whirlow , Sheffield
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Hot Rolling
In metalworking , ROLLING is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of ROLLS to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough . Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as HOT ROLLING. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is known as COLD ROLLING. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. ROLL STANDS holding pairs of rolls are grouped together into ROLLING MILLS that can quickly process metal, typically steel , into products such as structural steel (I-beams , angle stock, channel stock, and so on), bar stock , and rails
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