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Hadfield Steel
Mangalloy, also called manganese steel or Hadfield steel, is an alloy steel containing an average of around 13% manganese. Mangalloy
Mangalloy
is known for its high impact strength and resistance to abrasion once in its work-hardened state.Contents1 Material properties 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesMaterial properties[edit] Mangalloy
Mangalloy
is made by alloying steel, containing 0.8 to 1.25% carbon, with 11 to 15% manganese.[1] Mangalloy
Mangalloy
is a unique non-magnetic steel with extreme anti-wear properties. The material is very resistant to abrasion and will achieve up to three times its surface hardness during conditions of impact, without any increase in brittleness which is usually associated with hardness.[2] This allows mangalloy to retain its toughness. Most steels contain 0.15 to 0.8% manganese
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Bicycle Frame
A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted
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Benjamin Huntsman
Benjamin Huntsman
Benjamin Huntsman
(4 June 1704 – 20 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.[1] Biography[edit]Benjamin Huntsman's tomb, in the graveyard of Attercliffe
Attercliffe
ChapelHuntsman was born the fourth child of William and Mary (née Nainby) Huntsman, a Quaker
Quaker
farming couple, in Epworth, Lincolnshire. Some sources suggest that his parents were German immigrants.,[2] but it seems that they were both born in Lincolnshire.[3] Huntsman started business as a clock, lock and tool maker in Doncaster, Yorkshire. His reputation enabled him to also practice surgery in an experimental fashion and he was also consulted as an oculist.[4] Huntsman experimented in steel manufacture, first at Doncaster. Then in 1740 he moved to Handsworth, near Sheffield
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Tempering (metallurgy)
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and is done by heating the metal to some temperature below the critical point for a certain period of time, then allowing it to cool in still air. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties in the finished product
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Brinell Hardness
The Brinell scale
Brinell scale
/brəˈnɛl/ characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. It is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science. Proposed by Swedish engineer Johan August Brinell in 1900, it was the first widely used and standardised hardness test in engineering and metallurgy. The large size of indentation and possible damage to test-piece limits its usefulness. However it also had the useful feature that the hardness value divided by two gave the approximate UTS in ksi for steels. This feature contributed to its early adoption over competing hardness tests. The typical test uses a 10 millimetres (0.39 in) diameter steel ball as an indenter with a 3,000 kgf (29.42 kN; 6,614 lbf) force. For softer materials, a smaller force is used; for harder materials, a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball
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Indentation Hardness
Indentation hardness tests are used in mechanical engineering to determine the hardness of a material to deformation. Several such tests exist, wherein the examined material is indented until an impression is formed; these tests can be performed on a macroscopic or microscopic scale. When testing metals, indentation hardness correlates roughly linearly with tensile strength.,[1] but it is an imperfect correlation often limited to small ranges of strength and hardness for each indentation geometry
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Scratch Hardness
Scratch hardness tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion. The earliest test was developed by mineralogist Friedrich Mohs
Friedrich Mohs
in 1820 (see Mohs scale). It is based on relative scratch hardness, with talc assigned a value of 1 and diamond assigned a value of 10. Mohs' scale
Mohs' scale
had two limitations; it was not linear, and most modern abrasives fall between 9 and 10. Raymond R. Ridgway, a research engineer at the Norton Company, modified the Mohs scale
Mohs scale
by giving garnet a hardness of 10 and diamond a hardness of 15.[1] Charles E
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Machining
Machining
Machining
is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing,[1] in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools). Machining
Machining
is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites.[2] A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop
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Oxy-acetylene Torch
Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903.[1] Pure oxygen, instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the workpiece material (e.g. steel) in a room environment. A common propane/air flame burns at about 2,250 K (1,980 °C; 3,590 °F),[2] a propane/oxygen flame burns at about 2,526 K (2,253 °C; 4,087 °F),[3] an oxyhydrogen flame burns at 3,073 K (2,800 °C; 5,072 °F), and an acetylene/oxygen flame burns at about 3,773 K (3,500 °C; 6,332 °F).[4] Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes, besides forge welding
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Plasma Cutter
Plasma cutting
Plasma cutting
is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma. Typical materials cut with a plasma torch include steel, Stainless steel, aluminum, brass and copper, although other conductive metals may be cut as well. Plasma cutting
Plasma cutting
is often used in fabrication shops, automotive repair and restoration, industrial construction, and salvage and scrapping operations
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Laser Cutting
Laser
Laser
cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists. Laser
Laser
cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC
CNC
(computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. A typical commercial laser for cutting materials involved a motion control system to follow a CNC
CNC
or G-code
G-code
of the pattern to be cut onto the material
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Robert Hadfield
Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield, 1st Baronet FRS[1] (28 November 1858 in Sheffield – 30 September 1940 in Surrey) was an English metallurgist, noted for his 1882 discovery of manganese steel, one of the first steel alloys. He also invented silicon steel, initially for mechanical properties (patents in 1886) which have made the alloy a material of choice for springs and some fine blades, though it has also become important in electrical applications for its magnetic behaviour.[2] Contents1 Life 2 Honours 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Hadfield was born 28 November 1858 in Sheffield. Hadfield's father, also named Robert Hadfield, owned Hadfield's Steel Foundry in Sheffield and was one of the first manufacturers of steel castings. The younger Hadfield took over the business in 1888 and built the firm into one of the largest foundries in the world. Between 1898 and 1939 he lived at Parkhead House in Whirlow, Sheffield
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Crucible Steel
Crucible
Crucible
steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible. In ancient times steel and iron were impossible to melt using charcoal or coal fires, which could not produce temperatures high enough. However, pig iron, having a higher carbon content thus a lower melting point, could be melted, and by soaking wrought iron or steel in the liquid for long periods of time, the carbon content of the pig iron could be reduced as it slowly diffused into the iron. Crucible
Crucible
steel of this type was produced in South and Central Asia during the medieval era. This generally produced a very hard steel, but also a composite steel that was inhomogeneous, consisting of a very high-carbon steel (formerly the pig-iron) and a lower-carbon steel (formerly the wrought iron)
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Annealing (metallurgy)
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable. It involves heating a material above its recrystallization temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature for a suitable amount of time, and then cooling. In annealing, atoms migrate in the crystal lattice and the number of dislocations decreases, leading to a change in ductility and hardness. As the material cools it recrystallizes. For many alloys, including carbon steel, the crystal grain size and phase composition, which ultimately determine the material properties, are dependent on the heating, and cooling rate. Hot working or cold working after the annealing process alter the metal structure, so further heat treatments may be used to achieve the properties required
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Spiegeleisen
Spiegeleisen
Spiegeleisen
(literally "mirror-iron", German: spiegel—mirror or specular; eisen—iron) is a ferromanganese alloy containing approximately 15% manganese and small quantities of carbon and silicon. Spiegeleisen
Spiegeleisen
is sometimes also referred to as specular pig iron, Spiegel iron, just Spiegel, or Bisalloy.Contents1 Usage 2 Manufacture 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Historically, this was the standard form in which manganese was traded and used in steel making. Manganese
Manganese
is useful in steel manufacture because it binds with phosphorus, sulfur, and silica, removing them (to a degree) from the iron
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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