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HPA Axis
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys). These organs and their interactions constitute the HPA axis, a major neuroendocrine system[1] that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure
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Feedback
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviourNetworks Scale-free networks Social network analysis Small-world networks Community identification Centrality Motifs Graph Theory Scaling Robustness Systems biology Dynamic networks Adaptive networks Evolution
Evolution
and adaptation Artificial neural networks Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artific
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Hippocampus
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex (allocortical)[1][2][3] and in primates in the medial temporal lobe
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Proopiomelanocortin
NM_000939 NM_001035256 NM_001319204 NM_001319205NM_008895 NM_001278581 NM_001278582 NM_001278583 NM_001278584RefSeq (protein)NP_000930 NP_001030333 NP_001306133 NP_001306134NP_001265510 NP_001265511 NP_001265512 NP_001265513 NP_032921Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 25.16 – 25.17 Mb Chr 12: 3.95 – 3.96 MbPubMed search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseOpioids neuropeptideIdentifiersSymbol Op_neuropeptidePfam PF08035InterPro IPR013532PROSITE PDOC00964Available protein structures:Pfam structuresPDB RCSB PDB; PDBe; PDBjPDBsum structure summaryPro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues
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Epinephrine
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.[3][4] Epinephrine
Epinephrine
is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons.[3] It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation, and blood sugar.[5][6] It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors.[6] It is found in many animals and some single cell organisms.[7][8]
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Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
(NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter. The name "noradrenaline", derived from Latin roots meaning "at/alongside the kidneys", is more commonly used in the United Kingdom; in the United States, "norepinephrine," derived from Greek roots having that same meaning, is usually preferred.[1] "Norepinephrine" is also the international nonproprietary name given to the drug.[2] Regardless of which name is used for the substance itself, parts of the body that produce or are affected by it are referred to as noradrenergic. In the brain, norepinephrine is produced in nuclei that are small yet exert powerful effects on other brain areas. The most important of these nuclei is the locus coeruleus, located in the pons
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Adrenal Medulla
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.Contents1 Basic 2 Function 3 Origin 4 Pathology 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBasic[edit] The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In fact, these adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism
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Sympathetic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. (The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.)[1][2] The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response
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Sleep
Sleep
Sleep
is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.[1] It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of being comatose. Sleep
Sleep
occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes: REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body
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Circadian Rhythm
A circadian rhythm /sɜːrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.[1] The term circadian comes from the Latin
Latin
circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called diurnal rhythms; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed.[2] Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles
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Burnout (psychology)
Occupational burnout is thought to result from long-term, unresolvable job stress. In 1974, Herbert Freudenberger became the first researcher to publish in a psychology-related journal a paper that used the term burnout. The paper was based on his observations of the volunteer staff (including himself) at a free clinic for drug addicts.[1] He characterized burnout by a set of symptoms that includes exhaustion resulting from work's excessive demands as well as physical symptoms such as headaches and sleeplessness, "quickness to anger," and closed thinking. He observed that the burned out worker "looks, acts, and seems depressed". After the publication of Freudenberger's original paper, interest in occupational burnout grew
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Amygdala
The amygdala (/əˈmɪɡdələ/; plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin
Latin
from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil'[1]) is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.[2] Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making and emotional responses, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.[3]Contents1 Structure1.1 Hemispheric specializations2 Development2.1 Sex distinction3 Functio
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Prefrontal Cortex
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe. The PFC contains Brodmann areas
Brodmann areas
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25, 32, 44, 45, 46, and 47.[1] Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's will to live, personality, and the functions of the prefrontal cortex.[2] This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior.[3] The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.[4] The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function
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Cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid),[4] a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes and is essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
allows animal cells to function without a cell wall (which in other species protects membrane integrity and cell viability); this allows animal cells to change shape rapidly. In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid[5] and vitamin D. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals
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Central Nucleus
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala.[1][2] It "serves as the major output nucleus of the amygdala and participates in receiving and processing pain information."[3] CeA "connects with brainstem areas that control the expression of innate behaviors and associated physiological responses."[4] CeA has dopaminergic projections. CeA is responsible for "autonomic components of emotions (e.g., changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration) primarily through output pathways to the lateral hypothalamus and brain stem." The CeA is also responsible for "conscious perception of emotion primarily through the ventral amygdalofugal output pathway to the anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and prefrontal cortex."[5]Contents1 Amygdala subdividisions and outputs 2 Research 3 See also 4 ReferencesAmygdala subdividisions and outputs[edit]Inputs and outputs of the rodent central amygdalaThe regions descr
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Fight-or-flight Response
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.[1] It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon.[a][2] His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the animal for fighting or fleeing.[3] More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.[4] The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.[5] This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.[6]Contents1 Physiology1.1 Autonomic nervous system1.1.1 Sympathetic nervous system 1.1.2
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