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HDR10
HIGH-DYNAMIC-RANGE VIDEO (HDR video) describes high dynamic range (HDR) video that is greater than standard dynamic range (SDR) video which uses a conventional gamma curve . SDR video, when using a conventional gamma curve and a bit depth of 8-bits per sample, has a dynamic range of about 6 stops (64:1). When HDR content is displayed on a 2,000 cd/m2 display with a bit depth of 10-bits per sample it has a dynamic range of 200,000:1 or 17.6 stops. CONTENTS* 1 Technology * 1.1 Capture * 1.2 Display * 1.3 Production * 2 Standards * 2.1 Perceptual Quantizer * 2.2 HDR10 * 2.3 HDR10+ * 2.4 Dolby Vision
Dolby Vision
* 2.5 Hybrid Log-Gamma * 2.6 SL-HDR1 * 3 Guidelines and recommendations * 3.1 ITU-R Rec. 2100
Rec

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Low-dynamic-range Rendering
HIGH-DYNAMIC-RANGE RENDERING (HDRR or HDR RENDERING), also known as HIGH-DYNAMIC-RANGE LIGHTING, is the rendering of computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in high dynamic range (HDR). This allows preservation of details that may be lost due to limiting contrast ratios. Video games and computer-generated movies and special effects benefit from this as it creates more realistic scenes than with the more simplistic lighting models used. Graphics processor company Nvidia
Nvidia
summarizes the motivation for HDR in three points: bright things can be really bright, dark things can be really dark, and details can be seen in both
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Tone Mapping
TONE MAPPING is a technique used in image processing and computer graphics to map one set of colors to another to approximate the appearance of high-dynamic-range images in a medium that has a more limited dynamic range . Print-outs , CRT or LCD
LCD
monitors, and projectors all have a limited dynamic range that is inadequate to reproduce the full range of light intensities present in natural scenes. Tone mapping
Tone mapping
addresses the problem of strong contrast reduction from the scene radiance to the displayable range while preserving the image details and color appearance important to appreciate the original scene content
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Samsung Electronics
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. (Korean : 삼성전자; Hanja
Hanja
: 三星電子 (Literally "tristar electronics")) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon , South Korea. Through extremely complicated ownership structure with some circular ownership , it is the flagship division of the Samsung
Samsung
Group , accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. It is the world\'s second largest information technology company by revenue after Apple . Samsung
Samsung
Electronics
Electronics
has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 370,000 people. Since 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun has served as the company's CEO
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LCD TV
LIQUID-CRYSTAL-DISPLAY TELEVISIONS (LCD TV) are television sets that use liquid-crystal displays to produce images. LCD televisions are thinner and lighter than cathode ray tube (CRTs) of similar display size, and are available in much larger sizes. When manufacturing costs fell, this combination of features made LCDs practical for television receivers. In 2007, LCD televisions surpassed sales of CRT-based televisions worldwide for the first time, and their sales figures relative to other technologies are accelerating. LCD TVs are quickly displacing the only major competitors in the large-screen market, the plasma display panel and rear-projection television . LCDs are, by far, the most widely produced and sold television display type. LCDs also have a variety of disadvantages. Other technologies address these weaknesses, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), FED and SED , but as of 2014 none of these have entered widespread production for TV displays
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Television Set
A TELEVISION SET, more commonly called a TELEVISION, TV, TV SET, TELEVISION RECEIVER, or TELLY, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television . Introduced in the late 1920s in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II
World War II
in electronic form, using cathode ray tubes . The addition of color to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the popularity of television sets in the 1960s, and an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for the first recorded media in the 1970s, such as Betamax
Betamax
, VHS
VHS
and later DVD
DVD
. It was also the display device for the first generation of home computers (e.g., Timex Sinclair 1000) and video game consoles (e.g., Atari) in the 1980s
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OLED
An ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes; typically, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors , portable systems such as mobile phones , handheld game consoles and PDAs . A major area of research is the development of white OLED
OLED
devices for use in solid-state lighting applications. There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers . Adding mobile ions to an OLED
OLED
creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) which has a slightly different mode of operation
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Plasma Display
A PLASMA DISPLAY PANEL (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays 30 inches (76 cm) or larger. They are called "plasma " displays because they use small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases , which are plasmas. Plasma displays have lost nearly all market share, mostly due to competition from low-cost LCD and more expensive but high-contrast OLED flat-panel displays; manufacturing for the United States retail market ended in 2014, and manufacturing for the Chinese market was expected to end in 2016
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Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display
A SURFACE-CONDUCTION ELECTRON-EMITTER DISPLAY (SED) is a display technology for flat panel displays developed by a number of companies. SEDs use nanoscopic-scale electron emitters to energize colored phosphors and produce an image. In a general sense, an SED consists of a matrix of tiny cathode ray tubes , each "tube" forming a single sub-pixel on the screen, grouped in threes to form red-green-blue (RGB) pixels . SEDs combine the advantages of CRTs, namely their high contrast ratios , wide viewing angles and very fast response times , with the packaging advantages of LCD and other flat panel displays. They also use much less power than an LCD television of the same size. After considerable time and effort in the early and mid-2000s, SED efforts started winding down in 2009 as LCD became the dominant technology. In August 2010, Canon announced they were shutting down their joint effort to develop SEDs commercially, signalling the end of development efforts
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High Dynamic Range
HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE (HDR) is a dynamic range higher than what is considered to be standard dynamic range . The term is often used in discussing displays, photography , 3D rendering
3D rendering
, and sound recording including digital imaging and digital audio production. The term may apply to an analog or digitized signal , or to the means of recording, processing, and reproducing such signals. CONTENTS * 1 Visual * 2 Audio * 3 Radio * 4 Instrumentation * 5 See also * 6 References VISUAL High-dynamic-range imaging
High-dynamic-range imaging
(HDRI) is the compositing and tone-mapping of images to extend the dynamic range beyond the native capability of the capturing device. High-dynamic-range video (HDR video) is greater than standard dynamic range (SDR) video which uses a conventional gamma curve
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Technicolor SA
TECHNICOLOR SA, formerly THOMSON SARL and THOMSON MULTIMEDIA, is a French multinational corporation that provides services and products for the communication, media and entertainment industries. Technicolor's headquarters are located in Issy-les-Moulineaux
Issy-les-Moulineaux
– France. Other main office locations include Rennes
Rennes
(France), Los Angeles (California, USA), Edegem (Belgium), London
London
(England, UK), Bangalore
Bangalore
, Chennai
Chennai
(India), Lawrenceville
Lawrenceville
(Georgia, USA) and Carmel (Indiana, USA). On January 27, 2010, the company changed its name to Technicolor
Technicolor
SA, re-branding the entire company after its American film technology subsidiary. Thomson's US subsidiary became Technicolor
Technicolor
USA, Inc
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Academy Color Encoding System
The ACADEMY COLOR ENCODING SYSTEM (ACES) is a color image encoding system created by hundreds of industry professionals under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ACES allows for a fully encompassing color accurate workflow, with "seamless interchange of high quality motion picture images regardless of source". The system defines its own color primaries that completely encompass the visible spectral locus as defined by the CIE xyY specification. The white point is approximate to the CIE D60 standard illuminant , and ACES compliant files are encoded in 16-bit half-floats , thus allowing ACES OpenEXR files to encode 30 stops of scene information. ACES supports both high dynamic range (HDR) and wide color gamut (WCG). The version 1.0 release occurred in December 2014, and has been implemented by multiple vendors, and used on multiple motion pictures and television shows
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Luminance
LUMINANCE is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted or reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle . The SI unit for luminance is candela per square metre (cd/m2). A non-SI term for the same unit is the "nit". The CGS unit of luminance is the stilb , which is equal to one candela per square centimetre or 10 kcd/m2. CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Definition * 3 Relation to Illuminance * 4 Units * 5 Health effects * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EXPLANATION Luminance
Luminance
is often used to characterize emission or reflection from flat, diffuse surfaces. The luminance indicates how much luminous power will be detected by an eye looking at the surface from a particular angle of view
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Optical Transfer Function
The OPTICAL TRANSFER FUNCTION (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera , microscope , human eye , or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are handled by the system. It is used by optical engineers to describe how the optics project light from the object or scene onto a photographic film, detector array , retina , screen, or simply the next item in the optical transmission chain. A variant, the MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), neglects phase effects, but is equivalent to the OTF in many situations. Either transfer function specifies the response to a periodic sine-wave pattern passing through the lens system, as a function of its spatial frequency or period, and its orientation. Formally, the OTF is defined as the Fourier transform
Fourier transform
of the point spread function (PSF, that is, the impulse response of the optics, the image of a point source)
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Rec. 2100
ITU-R RECOMMENDATION BT.2100, more commonly known by the abbreviations REC. 2100 or BT.2100, defines various aspects of high dynamic range (HDR) video such as display resolution ( HDTV and UHDTV ), frame rate , chroma subsampling , bit depth , color space , and optical transfer function . It was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on July 4, 2016. Rec. 2100 expands on several aspects of Rec. 2020
Rec. 2020
. CONTENTS * 1 Resolution * 2 Frame rate * 3 Digital representation * 4 System colorimetry * 5 Luma coefficients * 6 Signal formats * 7 Optical transfer functions * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links RESOLUTION Rec. 2100
Rec. 2100
defines three resolutions of 1080p
1080p
, 3840 × 2160 ("4K"), and 7680 × 4320 ("8K"). These resolutions have an aspect ratio of 16:9 and use square pixels . FRAME RATE Rec
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Consumer Technology Association
The CONSUMER TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION (CTA), formerly CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ASSOCIATION (CEA), is a standards and trade organization for the consumer electronics industry in the United States. CTA works to influence public policy, holds events such as the International CES and SINOCES, conducts market research, and helps its members and regulators implement technical standards. CTA is led by CEO and President Gary Shapiro
Gary Shapiro

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