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Hồ Dynasty
The Hồ dynasty
Hồ dynasty
(Nhà Hồ, 胡朝, Hồ triều) was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400-01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1401 to 1406. The practice of bequeathing the throne to a designated son (not simply passing it on to the eldest) was similar to what had happened in the previous Trần dynasty
Trần dynasty
and was meant to avoid sibling rivalry. Hồ Quý Ly's eldest son, Hồ Nguyên Trừng, played his part as the dynasty's military general. In 2011, UNESCO declared the Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty in Thanh Hóa Province
Thanh Hóa Province
a world heritage site.[1]Contents1 Hồ Quý Ly (c. 1350 – c
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Ngô Sĩ Liên
Ngô Sĩ Liên
Ngô Sĩ Liên
was an historian of the Lê Dynasty.[3] He is best known for being the principal compiler of the Đại Việt
Đại Việt
sử ký toàn thư, a comprehensive chronicle of the history of Vietnam
Vietnam
and the oldest official historical record of a Vietnamese dynasty that remains today. In Đại Việt
Đại Việt
sử ký toàn thư, Ngô Sĩ Liên
Ngô Sĩ Liên
is appreciated not only for the precision of his records but also for the innovative method of compilation, he was the first Vietnamese writer who extracted information for historical book from collections of myths and legends such as Lĩnh Nam chích quái
Lĩnh Nam chích quái
or Việt điện u linh tập
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Yongle Emperor
The Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
(Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424), personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti), was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. He was originally enfeoffed as the Prince of Yan (燕王) in May 1370,[1] with the capital of his princedom at Beiping (modern Beijing). Amid the continuing struggle against the Mongols
Mongols
of the Northern Yuan dynasty, Zhu Di consolidated his own power and eliminated rivals such as the general Lan Yu
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Trần Thuận Tông
Trần Thuận Tông, (1378–1399), given name Trần Ngung, was the eleventh emperor of the Trần Dynasty
Dynasty
who reigned in Đại Việt from 1388 to 1398. He was chosen to succeed to this position by his father, the Retired Emperor Trần Nghệ Tông, after Nghệ Tông decided to dethrone and force Trần Phế Đế to commit suicide. Although holding the position emperor for ten years and retired emperor for one more year, Thuận Tông's reign was totally under the control of Nghệ Tông and Hồ Quý Ly. It was Hồ Quý Ly who obliged Thuận Tông to change the capital from Thăng Long to Thanh Hóa, Hồ Quý Ly was also responsible for the resignation of Thuận Tông as emperor and his death afterward
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Champa
Champa
Champa
(Vietnamese: Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam
Vietnam
from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
in AD 1832.[1] The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa (Sanskrit: नगरः चम्पः; Khmer: ចាម្ប៉ា) in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese (Chiêm Thành in Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary) and 占城 (Zhànchéng) in Chinese records. The Chams
Chams
of modern Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia
Cambodia
are the remnants of this former kingdom
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Pagoda
A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia[1][2] and further developed in East Asia
East Asia
or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist
Taoist
houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist, and were often located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures
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Sino-Vietnamese Vocabulary
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Vietnamese: Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm: 詞漢越, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language
Vietnamese language
borrowed from Chinese. They comprise about a third of the Vietnamese lexicon, and may account for as much as 60% of the vocabulary used in formal texts.[1] This vocabulary was originally written with Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that were used in the Vietnamese writing system, but like all written Vietnamese, is now written with the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet
Vietnamese alphabet
that was adopted in the early 20th century. Together with Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese vocabularies, Sino-Vietnamese has been used in the reconstruction of the sound categories of Middle Chinese
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Chen (state)
Chen (陳) was a Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
vassal state of ancient China. Its capital was Wanqiu, in present-day Huaiyang County in the plains of eastern Henan
Henan
province. According to tradition, the royal family of Chen were descendants of the legendary sage king Emperor Shun. After the conquest of the Shang dynasty in 1046/45 BC, King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhou
enfeoffed his son-in-law Gui Man, a descendant of Shun, at Chen, and Man became known as Duke Hu of Chen. Chen later became a satellite state of Chu, fighting as an ally of Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. It was finally annexed by Chu in 479 BC. Many people of Chen then took the name of their former country as their family name, and account for the majority of Chinese people with the family name Chen today
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Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese,[a] is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for almost all formal writing in China
China
until the early 20th century, and also, during various periods, in Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam
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Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
(/beɪˈdʒɪŋ/;[9] Mandarin: [pèi.tɕíŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Peking,[10] is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city
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Nanjing
Nanjing
Nanjing
( listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[3] is the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in t
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Trần Duệ Tông
Trần Duệ Tông (Chinese: 陳睿宗, 1337–1377), real name Trần Kính (陳曔), was the ninth emperor of the Trần dynasty
Trần dynasty
who reigned Annam from 1373 to 1377. Duệ Tông succeeded the throne from his brother Trần Nghệ Tông who was credited with the re-establishment of Trần clan's ruling in Annam from Hôn Đức Công. During his short-lived reign, Duệ Tông had to witness the rising of Hồ Quý Ly in royal court and several consecutive attacks in Annam from Chế Bồng Nga, king of Champa
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Hongwu Emperor
The Hongwu Emperor
Hongwu Emperor
(21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (formerly Romanized as Chu Yuan-Chang), was the founder and first emperor of China's Ming dynasty. In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues, and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu Yuanzhang rose to command the force that conquered China
China
and ended the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, forcing the Mongols
Mongols
to retreat to the Central Asian steppes. Zhu claimed the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
and established the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
at the beginning of 1368; later in the same year his army occupied the Yuan capital, Khanbaliq
Khanbaliq
(present-day Beijing)
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Lạng Sơn Province
Lạng Sơn
Lạng Sơn
( listen) is a province in far northern Vietnam, bordering Guangxi
Guangxi
province in China
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Ming Shilu
The Ming Shilu (traditional Chinese: 明實錄; simplified Chinese: 明实录; literally: "Veritable Records of the Ming") contains the imperial annals of the Ming emperors (1368–1644). It is the single largest historical source for the dynasty. According to modern historians, it "plays an extremely important role in the historical reconstruction of Ming society and politics."[1] After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, the Ming Shilu was used as a primary source for the compilation of the Mingshi (History of Ming).[2] The section (shilu) for each emperor was composed after the emperor's death by a History Office appointed by the Grand Secretariat using different types of historical sources such as:"The Qiju zhu (起居注 qǐjūzhù), or 'Diaries of Activity and Repose'. These were daily records of the actions and words of the Emperor in court."[3] "The 'Daily Records' (日曆 rìlì)
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Guangxi
Coordinates: 23°36′N 108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese. (July 2014) Click [show] for important translation instructions.View a machine-translated version of the Chinese article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation
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