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Hébertists
The Hébertists
Hébertists
were a radical revolutionary political group associated with the populist journalist Jacques Hébert. They came to power during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
and played a significant role in the French Revolution. The Hébertists
Hébertists
were ardent supporters of the dechristianization of France
France
and of extreme measures in service of the Terror, including the Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
enacted in 1793
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Jean-Baptiste Carrier
Jean-Baptiste Carrier
Jean-Baptiste Carrier
(1756 – 16 December 1794) was a French Revolutionary.Contents1 Biography 2 Representative to Nantes 3 Trial and conviction 4 References 5 BibliographyBiography[edit] Carrier was born at Yolet, a village near Aurillac
Aurillac
in Upper Auvergne.[1] As the son of a middle class tenant farmer, Jean-Baptiste Carrier and his family survived on income reaped from cultivating the land of a French nobleman. After attending a Jesuit college in Aurillac, he was able to pursue a wide variety of career interests. Carrier worked in a law office in Paris
Paris
until 1785 when he returned to Aurillac, marrying, joining the national guard and becoming a member of the Jacobin Club. In 1790 he was a country attorney (counsellor for the bailliage of Aurillac) and in 1792 became deputy to the National Convention
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Francois Hanriot
François Hanriot
François Hanriot
(3 September 1761 – 28 July 1794) was a French Jacobin
Jacobin
leader and street orator of the Revolution. He played a vital role in the Insurrection and subsequently the fall of the Girondins.Contents1 Life1.1 Early years 1.2 First roles in the Revolution 1.3 The Fall of the Girondists 1.4 End of the Revolution2 Notes 3 ReferencesLife[edit] Early years[edit] François Hanriot
François Hanriot
was born to poor parents in Nanterre, a western suburb of Paris.[1] His parents were servants to a Parisian bourgeoise[2] which most likely helped influence his support of the Revolution later in life. Not a man of any specific profession, Hanriot held a variety of different jobs. He took his first employment with a procureur doing mostly secretarial work, but lost his position due to reasons of dishonesty
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Drownings At Nantes
The Drownings at Nantes
Nantes
(French: Noyades de Nantes) were a series of mass executions by drowning during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
in Nantes, France, that occurred between November 1793 and February 1794. During this period, anyone arrested and jailed for not consistently supporting the Revolution, or suspected of being a royalist sympathizer, especially Catholic priests and nuns, was cast into the Loire
Loire
and drowned on the orders of Jean-Baptiste Carrier, the representative-on-mission in Nantes
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French East India Company
The French East India
India
Company (French: Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar
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Paris Commune (French Revolution)
The Paris Commune
Paris Commune
during the French Revolution
French Revolution
was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, it consisted of 144 delegates elected by the 48 divisions of the city. The Paris Commune
Paris Commune
became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and the people
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Joseph Le Bon
Joseph Le Bon
Joseph Le Bon
(29 September 1765 – 10 October 1795) was a French politician. He was born at Arras. He became a priest in the order of the Oratory, and professor of rhetoric at Beaune. He adopted revolutionary ideas, and became a curé of the Constitutional Church
Constitutional Church
in the department of Pas-de-Calais, where he was later elected as a député suppléant to the Convention. He became maire of Arras and administrateur of Pas-de-Calais, and on 2 July 1793 took his seat in the Convention.Contents1 Career 2 Victims 3 References 4 External linksCareer[edit] He was sent as a representative on missions into the departments of the Somme and Pas-de-Calais, where he showed great severity in dealing with offences against revolutionaries (8th Brumaire, year II. to 22nd Messidor, year II.; i.e
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François Chabot
François Chabot
François Chabot
(23 October 1756 – 5 April 1794) was a French politician.Contents1 Early life 2 Convention 3 Execution 4 Quotes 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born in Saint-Geniez-d'Olt
Saint-Geniez-d'Olt
(Aveyron), Chabot became a Capuchin friar in Rodez
Rodez
before the French Revolution, while continuing to be attracted to the works of philosophes - the reason for which he was banned from preaching in the respective diocese. After the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, he got married and continued to act as constitutional priest, becoming grand vicar of Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois; he was also the founder of the Jacobin Club
Jacobin Club
in Rodez
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Pierre-Ulric Dubuisson
Pierre-Ulric Dubuisson (23 January 1746 in Laval, Mayenne
Laval, Mayenne
– 24 March 1794) was an 18th-century French actor, playwright and theatre director. Denounced by Robespierre as having intended to sow discord among the Jacobins, he was tried by the Revolutionary Court
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Jules Arsène Arnaud Claretie
Jules Arsène Arnaud Claretie
Jules Arsène Arnaud Claretie
(3 December 1840 – 23 December 1913) was a French literary figure and director of the Théâtre Français.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Works in English translation3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Limoges. After studying at the lycée Bonaparte in Paris, he became a journalist, achieving great success as dramatic critic to Le Figaro
Le Figaro
and to the Opinion nationale. He was a newspaper correspondent during the Franco-Prussian War, and during the Paris Commune acted as staff-officer in the National Guard. In 1885 he became director of the Théâtre Français, and from that time devoted his time chiefly to its administration until his death
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François Furet
François Furet (French: [fʁɑ̃swa fyʁɛ]; 27 March 1927, Paris
Paris
– 12 July 1997, Figeac) was a French historian, and president of the Saint-Simon Foundation, well known for his books on the French Revolution. He was elected to the Académie française
Académie française
in March 1997, just three months before he died in July.Contents1 Biography 2 French Revolution 3 Methodology 4 Bibliography 5 Notes 6 Further readingBiography[edit] Born in Paris
Paris
on 27 March 1927, into a wealthy family, François Furet was a brilliant student who graduated from the Sorbonne with the highest honors and soon decided on a life of research, teaching and writing.[1] He received his education at the Lycée Janson de Sailly and at the faculty of art and law of Paris
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Simon Schama
Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (/ˈʃæmə/; born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history
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Citizens
Citizenship
Citizenship
is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. Nationality
Nationality
is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English[1] – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group).[2] In some countries, e.g
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Commission Of Twelve
During the French Revolution, the Extraordinary Commission of Twelve (Commission extraordinaire des Douze) was a commission of the French National Convention charged with finding and trying conspirators. It was known for short as the Commission of Twelve and its formation led to the revolt of 2 June 1793, the fall of the Girondins and the start of the Reign of Terror.Contents1 History1.1 Formation 1.2 Course 1.3 EndHistory[edit] Formation[edit] Since the Convention's formation, the Girondists and Montagnards had competed to dominate it. The Montagnards had been able to set up the Extraordinary criminal tribunal on 10 March 1793 and the Committee of Public Safety on 6 April the same year
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Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte
Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte (25 December 1754 – 8 June 1840) was a minister in the French government. He was born in Metz. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was a captain of cavalry, and his zeal led to his being made colonel and given the command at Cambrai. When Dumouriez delivered up to the Austrians the minister of war, the marquis de Beurnonville, in April 1793, Bouchotte, who had bravely defended Cambrai, was called by the Convention to be minister of war, where he remained until 31 March 1794. The predominant rôle of the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
during that period did not leave much scope for the new minister, yet he rendered some services in the organization of the republican armies, and chose his officers with insight, among them Kléber, Masséna, Moreau and Bonaparte. During the Thermidorian reaction, in spite of his incontestable honesty, he was accused by the anti-revolutionists
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Ruth Scurr
Dr Ruth Scurr FRSL (born 1971, London)[citation needed] is a British writer, historian and literary critic. She is a Fellow of Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge.[1] She was educated at St Bernard's Convent, Slough; Oxford University, Cambridge University and the Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris. She won a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2000. Her first book, Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution (Chatto & Windus, 2006; Metropolitan Books, 2006) won the Franco-British Society Literary Prize (2006), was shortlisted for the Duff Cooper Prize (2006), long-listed for the Samuel Johnson Prize (2007) and was listed among the 100 Best Books of the Decade in The Times in 2009.[2] It has been translated into five languages. Her second book, John Aubrey: My own Life (Chatto & Windus, 2015; New York Review of Books, 2016) was shortlisted for the 2015 Costa Biography Award and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize
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