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Hán-Nôm
Until the beginning of the 20th century, government and scholarly documents in Vietnam were written in classical Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言[1]), using Chinese characters with Vietnamese approximation of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciations. At the same time popular novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chines
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Kokuji
Kanji
Kanji
(漢字; [kandʑi]  listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that are used in the Japanese writing system.[1] They are used alongside hiragana and katakana
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Kyūjitai
Kyūjitai
Kyūjitai
(舊字體/旧字体, literally "old character forms"), are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (新字体), "new character forms". Some of the simplified characters arose centuries ago and were in everyday use in both China
China
and Japan, but they were considered inelegant, even uncouth. After World War II, simplified character forms were made official in both these countries. However, in Japan
Japan
fewer and less drastic simplifications were made: e.g. "electric" is still written as 電 in Japan, as it is also written in Hong Kong, Macao, South Korea
South Korea
and Taiwan, which continue to use traditional Chinese characters, but has been simplified to 电 in mainland China
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Grapheme
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.[1] An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. A grapheme can also be construed as a graphical sign that independently represents a portion of linguistic material.[2] The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character. By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Jōyō Kanji
The jōyō kanji (常用漢字, literally "regular-use Chinese characters") is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education. Current jōyō kanji are those on a list of 2,136 characters issued in 2010. It is a slightly modified version of the tōyō kanji, which was the initial list of secondary school-level kanji standardized after World War II. The list is not a comprehensive list of all characters and readings in regular use; rather, it is intended as a literacy baseline for those who have completed compulsory education, as well as a list of permitted characters and readings for use in official government documents
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List Of Commonly Used Characters In Modern Chinese
The List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese
List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese
(simplified Chinese: 现代汉语通用字表; traditional Chinese: 現代漢語通用字表; pinyin: Xiàndài Hànyǔ Tōngyòngzì Biǎo) is a list of 7,000 commonly used Chinese characters
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Tōyō Kanji
The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji
Kanji
characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language. They were the kanji declared "official" by the Japanese Ministry of Education (文部省) on November 16, 1946. They were replaced in 1981 by the Jōyō kanji.Contents1 History 2 Reform 3 Applications and limitations 4 Mazegaki 5 List of the 1,850 tōyō kanji 6 See also 7 External linksHistory[edit] Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. Prior to World War II, language scholars were concerned with these problems in learning Japanese writing
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Chinese Character Simplification Scheme
The Chinese Character Simplification Scheme
Chinese Character Simplification Scheme
(simplified Chinese: 汉字简化方案; traditional Chinese: 漢字簡化方案; pinyin: Hànzì jiǎnhuà fāng'àn) is the standardized simplification of Chinese characters
Chinese characters
promulgated in the 1950s by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. It contains the existing Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that are in use today
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Second Round Of Simplified Chinese Characters
Character(s) may refer to:Contents1 Arts, entertainment, and media1.1 Literature 1.2 Music 1.3 Types of entities 1.4 Other arts, entertainment, and media2 Mathematics and science 3 Morality and social science 4 Symbols 5 Other uses 6 See alsoArts, entertainment, and media[edit] Literature[edit] Character
Character
(novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk Characters (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to TheophrastusMusic[edit]Characters (John Abercrombie album), 1977
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Debate On Traditional And Simplified Chinese Characters
The debate on traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
and simplified Chinese characters is an ongoing dispute concerning Chinese orthography among users of Chinese characters. It has stirred up heated responses from supporters of both sides in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities with its implications of political ideology and cultural identity.[1] Simplified characters here exclusively refer to those characters simplified by the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC), instead of the concept of character simplification as a whole
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Japanese Script Reform
The Japanese script reform
Japanese script reform
is the attempt to correlate standard spoken Japanese with the written word, which began during the Meiji period. This issue is known in Japan
Japan
as the kokugo kokuji mondai (国語国字問題, national language and script problem)
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Shinjitai
Shinjitai
Shinjitai
(Japanese: 新字体, "new character form") are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji
Kanji
List in 1946. Some of the new forms found in shinjitai are also found in Simplified Chinese characters, but shinjitai is generally not as extensive in the scope of its modification. Shinjitai
Shinjitai
were created by reducing the number of strokes in kyūjitai ("old character form"), unsimplified kanji equivalent to Traditional Chinese characters, also called seiji (正字, "proper/correct characters")
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List Of Graphemes Of Commonly-Used Chinese Characters
The List of Graphemes
Graphemes
of Commonly-used Chinese Characters (Chinese: 常用字字形表; Jyutping: soeng4 jung6 zi6 zi6 jing4 biu2) is a list of 4762 commonly used Chinese characters
Chinese characters
and their standardized forms prescribed by the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Education Bureau
Education Bureau
to be taught in primary and Middle schools in Hong Kong. The list was last updated in 2007, included as an appendix to the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Chinese Lexical Lists for Primary Learning (Chinese: 香港小學學習字詞表; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 siu2 hok6 hok6 zaap6 zi6 ci4 biu2)
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Ryakuji
Ryakuji
Ryakuji
(Japanese: 略字 "abbreviated characters", or 筆写略字 hissha ryakuji, meaning "handwritten abbreviated characters") are colloquial simplifications of kanji.Contents1 Status 2 Use 3 Examples3.1 Notes4 Further examples4.1 Derived characters 4.2 Phonetic simplifications5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStatus[edit] Ryakuji
Ryakuji
are not covered in the Kanji
Kanji
Kentei, nor are they officially recognized (most Ryakuji
Ryakuji
are not present in Unicode). However, some abbreviated forms of Hyōgaiji (表外字, characters not included in the Tōyō or Jōyō Kanji
Kanji
Lists) included in the JIS standards which conform to the Shinjitai
Shinjitai
simplifications are included in Level pre-1 and above of the Kanji
Kanji
Kentei (e.g
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