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Gylippus
Gylippus (/dʒɪˈlɪpəs/; Greek: Γύλιππος) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC; he was the son of Cleandridas, who was the adviser of King Pleistoanax and had been expelled from Sparta
Sparta
for accepting Athenian bribes in 446 BC and fled to Thurii, a pan-Hellenic colony then being founded in the instep of Italy
Italy
with Athenian help and participation. His mother may have been a helot, which meant he was not a true Spartiate but a mothax, a man of inferior status. Despite this, however, from an early childhood he was trained for war in the traditional Spartan fashion and on reaching maturity had been elected to a military mess, his dues contributed by a wealthier Spartiate patron
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from sedere, Latin
Latin
for "to sit".[1] Siege
Siege
warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static, defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by a quick assault, and which refuses to surrender. Sieges involve surrounding the target to block the provision of supplies and the reinforcement or escape of troops (a tactic known as "investment"[2])
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Trial In Absentia
Trial in absentia
Trial in absentia
is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings. In absentia is Latin
Latin
for "in the absence". Its meaning varies by jurisdiction and legal system. In common law legal systems, the phrase is more than a spatial description
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Embezzle
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.[1] Embezzlement is a type of financial fraud. For example, a lawyer might embezzle funds from the trust accounts of their clients; a financial advisor might embezzle the funds of investors; and a husband or a wife might embezzle funds from a bank account jointly held with the spouse. Embezzlement usually is a premeditated crime, performed methodically, with precautions that conceal the criminal conversion of the property, which occurs without the knowledge or consent of the affected person. Often it involves the trusted individual embezzling only a small proportion of the total of the funds or resources they receive or control, in an attempt to minimize the risk of the detection of the misallocation of the funds or resources
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Ephor
This article is part of the series: Spartan ConstitutionGreat Rhetra Laws of Lycurgus PoliteiaList of Kings of Sparta Gerousia Ephorate Apella Spartiates Perioeci Helots Agoge SyssitiaSpartan army •   Other Greek city-states •  Law Portalview talk editThe ephors were leaders of ancient Sparta
Sparta
and shared power with the two Spartan kings. The ephors were a council of five elected annually who swore "on behalf of the city", while the kings swore for themselves.[1] Herodotus
Herodotus
claimed that the institution was created by Lycurgus, while Plutarch
Plutarch
considers it a later institution. It may have arisen from the need for governors while the kings were leading armies in battle. The ephors were elected by the popular assembly, and all citizens were eligible for election. They were forbidden to be reelected
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Silver Coin
Silver
Silver
coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage. Silver
Silver
has been used as a coinage metal since the times of the Greeks; their silver drachmas were popular trade coins. The ancient Persians used silver coins between 612-330 BC. Before 1797, British pennies were made of silver. As with all collectible coins, many factors determine the value of a silver coin, such as its rarity, demand, condition and the number originally minted. Ancient silver coins coveted by collectors include the Denarius
Denarius
and Miliarense, while more recent collectible silver coins include the Morgan Dollar
Morgan Dollar
and the Spanish Milled Dollar. Other than collector's silver coins, silver bullion coins are popular among people who desire a "hedge" against currency inflation or store of value
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Scandal
A scandal can be broadly defined as an accusation or accusations that receive wide exposure. Generally there is a negative effect on the credibility of the person or organisation involved. Society is scandalised when it is made aware of blatant breaches of moral norms or legal requirements. In contemporary times, exposure is often made by mass media. Such breaches have typically erupted from greed, lust or the abuse of power. Scandals may be regarded as political, sexual, moral, literary or artistic but often spread from one realm into another. The basis of a scandal may be factual or false, or a combination of both.[1] Contemporary media has the capacity to spread knowledge of a scandal further than in previous centuries and public interest has encouraged many cases of confected scandals relating to well-known people as well as genuine scandals relating to politics and business
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Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides
(/θjuːˈsɪdɪdiːz/; Ancient Greek: Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs, [tʰuːkydídɛːs]; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian
Athenian
historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War
History of the Peloponnesian War
recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta
Sparta
and Athens
Athens
until the year 411 BC
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Plutarch
Plutarch
Plutarch
(/ˈpluːtɑːrk/; Greek: Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos, Koine Greek: [plǔːtarkʰos]; c. CE 46 – CE 120),[1] later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος)[a] was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives
Parallel Lives
and Moralia.[2] He is classified[3] as a Middle Platonist
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Timaeus (historian)
Timaeus (Ancient Greek: Τιμαῖος; c. 345 BC – c. 250 BC) was an ancient Greek historian.Contents1 Biography 2 Work 3 Reception 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further readingBiography[edit] He was born at Tauromenium (modern Taormina) in Sicily. Driven out of Sicily
Sicily
by Agathocles, he migrated to Athens, where he studied rhetoric under a pupil of Isocrates
Isocrates
and lived for fifty years. During the reign of Hiero II he returned to Sicily
Sicily
(probably to Syracuse), where he died.[1] Work[edit] While at Athens
Athens
he completed his great historical work, the Histories, probably some 40 books. This work was divided into unequal sections, containing the history of Greece from its earliest days till the first Punic war
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Diodorus
Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(/ˌdaɪəˈdɔːrəs ˈsɪkjʊləs/; Greek: Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (fl. 1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily
Sicily
was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India
India
and Arabia
Arabia
to Greece
Greece
and Europe. The second covers the Trojan War
Trojan War
to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC
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Cleandridas
Cleandridas or Cleandrides (Greek: Κλεανδρίδας or Κλεανδρίδης) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BCE, who advised the young Agiad
Agiad
king Pleistoanax during the early part of the latter's reign. According to Plutarch, both Cleandrides and Pleistoanax were banished from Sparta
Sparta
(most likely between the years 446 and 444), for allegedly accepting a bribe from the Athenian
Athenian
leader Pericles
Pericles
to call off their planned attack on the Athenian
Athenian
region Attica. Although Pleistoanax was later recalled to Sparta, Cleandrides had a death sentence imposed upon him in his absence
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Polyaenus
Polyaenus or Polyenus (/ˌpɒliˈiːnəs/ POL-ee-EE-nəs; see ae (æ) vs. e; Greek: Πoλύαινoς, Polyainos, "much-praised") was a 2nd-century Macedonian author, known best for his Stratagems in War (in Greek, Στρατηγήματα), which has been preserved
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated
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