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Gyil
The balafon is a kind of wooden xylophone or percussion idiophone which plays melodic tunes, and usually has between 16 and 27 keys. It has been played in Africa since the 12th century according to oral records; it originated in Mali, according to the Manding history narrated by the griots.[citation needed]Contents1 History1.1 Etymology2 Construction 3 Regional traditions3.1 Gyil 3.2 Cameroon 3.3 Guinea3.3.1 The Sosso
Sosso
Bala3.4 Senegal 3.5 Mali4 Famous players and ensembles 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Believed to have been developed independently of the Southern African and South American instrument now called the marimba, oral histories of the balafon date it to at least the rise of the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
in the 12th century CE
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Musical Instrument Classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most commonly used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; however, other schemes have been devised.Contents1 Chinese classification 2 Western classification 3 Mahillon and Hornbostel-Sachs systems 4 André Schaeffner4.1 Elementary organology5 Range 6 Other classifications6.1 Indonesian instruments 6.2 West African instruments 6.3 Kurt Reinhard 6.4 Persia7 See also 8 ReferencesChinese classification[edit] The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC.[citation needed] It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of
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Heptatonic
A heptatonic scale is a musical scale that has seven pitches per octave. Examples include the major scale or minor scale; e.g., in C major: C D E F G A B C—and in the relative minor, A minor, natural minor: A B C D E F G A; the melodic minor scale, A B C D E F♯G♯A ascending, A G F E D C B A descending; the harmonic minor scale, A B C D E F G♯A; and a scale variously known as the Byzantine, and Hungarian,[1] scale, C D E♭ F♯ G A♭ B C. Indian classical theory postulates seventy-two seven-tone scale types, whereas others postulate twelve or ten (depending on the theorist) seven-tone scale types collectively called thaat. Several heptatonic scales in Western, Roman, Spanish, Hungarian, and Greek music can be analyzed as juxtapositions of tetrachords.[2] All heptatonic scales have all intervals present in their interval vector analysis,[3] and thus all heptatonic scales are both hemitonic and tritonic
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Salif Keita
Salif Keïta (IPA: [salif keita]) (born August 25, 1949) is an afro-pop singer-songwriter from Mali. He is notable not only because of his reputation as the "Golden Voice of Africa" but also because he has albinism.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Career2 Discography 3 Singles 4 Music videos 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Salif Keita
Salif Keita
was born in the village of Djoliba.[1] He was cast out by his family and ostracized by the community because of his albinism, a sign of bad luck in Mandinka culture.[2] In 1967, he left Djoliba for Bamako, where he joined the government sponsored Super Rail Band de Bamako. In 1973 Keita joined the group, Les Ambassadeurs. Keita and Les Ambassadeurs fled political unrest in Mali
Mali
during the mid-1970s for Abidjan, Ivory Coast, and subsequently changed the group's name to "Les Ambassadeurs Internationaux"
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Guinea
Coordinates: 11°N 10°W / 11°N 10°W / 11; -10 Republic
Republic
of Guinea République de Guinée (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Travail, Justice, Solidarité" (French) "Work, Justice, Solidarity"Anthem: Liberté  (French) FreedomLocation of  Guinea  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Conakry 9°31′N 13°42′W / 9.517°N 13.700°W / 9.517; -13.700Official languages
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Guitar
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.[1] The sound is projected either acoustically, using a hollow wooden or plastic and wood box (for an acoustic guitar), or through electrical amplifier and a speaker (for an electric guitar). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, thumb or fingernails of the right hand or with a pick while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning
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Mandinka Language
The Mandinka language (Mandi'nka kango), or Mandingo, is a Mandé language spoken by the Mandinka people
Mandinka people
of the Casamance
Casamance
region of Senegal, the Gambia, and northern Guinea-Bissau. It is one of principal languages of the Gambia. It has unique feature that it uses Three scripts like Punjabi Language Mandinka belongs to the Manding branch of Mandé, and is thus similar to Bambara and Maninka/Malinké
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Bass (sound)
Bass describes tones of low (also called "deep") frequency, pitch and range from 16-256 Hz (C0 to middle C4). In musical compositions, such as songs and pieces, these are the lowest parts of the harmony. In choral music without instrumental accompaniment, the bass is supplied by adult male bass singers. In an orchestra, the basslines are played by the double bass and cellos, bassoon or contrabassoon, low brass such as the tuba and bass trombone, and the timpani (kettledrums). In many styles of traditional music such as Bluegrass, folk, and in styles such as Rockabilly
Rockabilly
and Big Band
Big Band
and Bebop
Bebop
jazz, the bass role is filled by the upright bass. In most rock and pop bands and in jazz fusion groups, the bass role is filled by the electric bass
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Kolokani
Kolokani
Kolokani
is a town of approximately 57,307 inhabitants in Mali's Koulikoro
Koulikoro
Region. It is the capital of the Cercle of Kolokani, which consists of 10 rural communes (Didieni, Guihoyo, Kolokani, Massantala, Nonkon, Nossombougou, Ouolodo, Sagabala, Sebecoro and Tioribougou)
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Bobo Dioulasso
Coordinates: 11°11′N 4°17′W / 11.183°N 4.283°W / 11.183; -4.283 Bobo-Dioulasso
Bobo-Dioulasso
is a city in Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
with a population of about 537,728 (as of 2012[update]);[2] it is the second largest city in the country, after Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital. The name means "home of the Bobo-Dioula"; while it was likely coined by French colonists to reflect the languages of the two major groups in the population, it does not capture the complex identity and ethnicity of the location. The local Bobo-speaking population (related to the Mande) refers to the city simply as Sia. There are two distinct dialects spoken of Jula, based on the origins of different peoples who speak this language
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Calabash
A calabash, bottle gourd,[1] or white-flowered gourd,[2] Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean,[3] is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil. When it is fresh, the fruit has a light green smooth skin and white flesh. Calabash
Calabash
fruits have a variety of shapes: they can be huge and rounded, small and bottle shaped, or slim and serpentine, and they can grow to be over a metre long. Rounder varieties are typically called calabash gourds. The gourd was one of the world's first cultivated plants grown not primarily for food, but for use as containers
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Tetratonic
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending, for example, the melodic minor scale. Often, especially in the context of the common practice period, most or all of the melody and harmony of a musical work is built using the notes of a single scale, which can be conveniently represented on a staff with a standard key signature.[1] Due to the principle of octave equivalence, scales are generally considered to span a single octave, with higher or lower octaves simply repeating the pattern
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Pentatonic
A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale)
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Flat (music)
In music, flat or bemolle (Italian: "soft B") means "lower in pitch". More specifically, in musical notation, flat means "lower in pitch by one semitone (half step)". Flat is the opposite of sharp, which is a raising of pitch. In music notation, the flat symbol, ♭, derived from a stylised lowercase "b", lowers a note by a half step (semitone).[1][2] For instance, the music below has a key signature with three flats (indicating either E♭ major or C minor) and the note, D♭, has a flat accidental.The Unicode
Unicode
character ♭ (U+266D) can be found in the block Miscellaneous Symbols; its HTML entity is ♭. Under twelve-tone equal temperament, C♭ for instance is the same as (or enharmonically equivalent to) B♮, and G♭ is equivalent to F♯. In any other tuning system, such enharmonic equivalences in general do not exist
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World Music
World music
World music
(also called global music or international music[1]) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of inter
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Sharp (music)
In music, sharp, dièse (from French), or diesis (from Greek)[a] means higher in pitch. More specifically, in musical notation, sharp means "higher in pitch by one semitone (half step)". Sharp is the opposite of flat, which is a lowering of pitch. There is an associated sharp symbol, ♯, which may be found in key signatures or as an accidental. For instance, the music below has a key signature with three sharps (indicating either A major
A major
or F♯ minor) and the note, A♯, has a sharp accidental.Moreover, under twelve-tone equal temperament, B♯, for instance, sounds the same as, or is enharmonically equivalent to, C natural (C♮), and E♯ is enharmonically equivalent to F♮. In other tuning systems, such enharmonic equivalences in general do not exist
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